Archaeology/Anthropology Roundup


I want to get back to some of the topics I’ve left hanging, but first I’d like to mention a few other topics that have been sadly neglected during the whole—er, pandemic thing—but that we frequently discuss here on the blog. Specifically archaeology and architecture. This one will be about archaeology.

I want to highlight something that came out about a month ago that you’re probably aware of. If not, here it is: the Amazon rain forest has been found to be one of the cradles of agriculture.

The original cradles of agriculture described in history textbooks were the great river valley of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, along with the Nile valley. As archaeology expanded from its European origins, the Indus river valley in India/Pakistan and the Yellow river valley in China were included as cradles of agriculture. Then came New World sources of maize and potatoes in Central and South America. In recent years, archaeologists have included a few other places, notably Papua New Guinea. Now, it seems we can add the Amazon rain forest to the list:

There’s a small and exclusive list of places where crop cultivation first got started in the ancient world – and it looks as though that list might have another entry, according to new research of curious ‘islands’ in the Amazon basin.

The savannah of the Llanos de Moxos in northern Bolivia is littered with thousands of patches of forest, rising a few feet above the surrounding wetlands. Many of these forest islands, as researchers call them, are thought to be the remnants of human habitation from the early and mid-Holocene.

Now, thanks to new analysis of the sediment found in some of these islands, researchers have unearthed signs that these spots were used to grow cassava (manioc) and squash a little over 10,000 years ago.

That’s impressive, as this timing places them some 8,000 years earlier than scientists had previously found evidence for, indicating that the people who lived in this part of the world – the southwestern corner of the Amazon basin – got a head start on farming practices.

In fact, the findings suggest that southwestern Amazonia can now join China, the Middle East, Mesoamerica, and the Andes as one of the areas where organised plant growing first got going – in the words of the research team, “one of the most important cultural transitions in human history”.

Strange Forest Patches Littering The Amazon Point to Agriculture 10,000 Years Ago (Science Alert)

The researchers were able to identify evidence of manioc (cassava, yuca) that were grown 10,350 years ago. Squash appears 10,250 years ago, and maize more recently – just 6,850 years ago.

“This is quite surprising,” said Dr [Umberto] Lombardo. “This is Amazonia, this is one of these places that a few years ago we thought to be like a virgin forest, an untouched environment. Now we’re finding this evidence that people were living there 10,500 years ago, and they started practising cultivation.”

The people who lived at this time probably also survived on sweet potato and peanuts, as well as fish and large herbivores. The researchers say it’s likely that the humans who lived here may have brought their plants with them.They believe their study is another example of the global impact of the environmental changes being felt as the world warmed up at the end of the last ice age.

“It’s interesting in that it confirms again that domestication begins at the start of the Holocene period, when we have this climate change that we see as we exit from the ice age,” said Dr Lombardo. “We entered this warm period, when all over the world at the same time, people start cultivating.”

Crops were cultivated in regions of the Amazon ‘10,000 years ago’ (BBC)

Note that what is grown appears to be vegetable plants like cassava, yucca and squash, and not cereal grains. Recall James Scott’s point that annual cereal grains were a starting point for civilizations, as they were preservable and ripened at the same rate at the same time, making them confiscatable and by central authorities. Cultures that subsisted on perishable garden plants, however, could escape the trap of civilization.

Here’s a major study that ties into the feasting theory: the first beer was brewed a part of funerary rites for the dead:

The first beer was for the dead. That’s according to a 2018 study of stone vessels from Raqefet Cave in Israel, a 13,000-year-old graveyard containing roughly 30 burials of the Natufian culture. On three limestone mortars, archaeologists found wear and tear and plant molecules, interpreted as evidence of alcohol production. Given the cemetery setting, researchers propose grog was made during funerary rituals in the cave, as an offering to the dearly departed and refreshment for the living. Raqefet’s beer would predate farming in the Near East by as much as 2,000 years — and booze production, globally, by some 4,000 years.

The beer hypothesis, published in the Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, comes from Raqefet excavators, based at Israel’s University of Haifa, and Stanford University scientists, who conducted microscopic analyses. In previous research, they made experimental brews the ancient way, to see how the process altered artifacts. Some telltale signs were then identified on Raqefet stones: A roughly 10-inch diameter mortar, carved directly into the cave floor, had micro-scratches — probably from a wooden pestle — and starch with damage indicative of mashing, heating and fermenting, all steps in alcohol production. Two funnel-shaped stones had traces of cereals, legumes and flax, interpreted as evidence that they were once lined with woven baskets and used to store grains and other beer ingredients. Lead author Li Liu thinks Natufians also made bread, but that these three vessels were for beer — the earliest yet discovered.

Was the First Beer Brewed for the Dead? (Discover)

The counterpoint is that they were baking bead instead, leading back to the old question: what were grains first cultivated for, beer or bread? My suspicion is the former, with the latter being an effective use of “surplus” resources, or a backup strategy in the case of food shortages.

The connection between beer-brewing and funerary rites is significant, however. The feasting theory of inequality’s origins doesn’t go into much detail about why such feasts were held. But if such rituals feasts were held as a means of commemorating the dead—most likely tied to ancestor worship—then the existence of such events takes on additional importance.

When I talked about the history of cities and the feasting theory, I noted that these seem to have taken place in ritual areas that were marked off (sacred versus profane) for the purposes of feasting and trade, and where multiple different cultures would coalesce and mingle. At such locations, both feasting and trading were carried out. These locations appear to have played a crucial role in human social development, and they’ve been found all over the world. Archaeologists have been studying one in Florida:

More than a thousand years ago, people from across the Southeast regularly traveled to a small island on Florida’s Gulf Coast to bond over oysters, likely as a means of coping with climate change and social upheaval.

Archaeologists’ analysis of present-day Roberts Island, about 50 miles north of Tampa Bay, showed that ancient people continued their centuries-long tradition of meeting to socialize and feast, even after an unknown crisis around A.D. 650 triggered the abandonment of most other such ceremonial sites in the region. For the next 400 years, out-of-towners made trips to the island, where shell mounds and a stepped pyramid were maintained by a small group of locals. But unlike the lavish spreads of the past, the menu primarily consisted of oysters, possibly a reflection of lower sea levels and cool, dry conditions.

During tough times, ancient ‘tourists’ sought solace in Florida oyster feasts (Phys.org)

So I guess Florida has always been a magnet for tourists.

And although Stonehenge is well-known, much less known is Pömmelte, “Germany’s Stonehenge”.

Starting in April, an about-4,000-year-old settlement will be excavated to provide insights into Early Bronze Age life. Settlements of this size have not yet been found at the related henges in the British Isles.

Pömmelte is a ring-shaped sanctuary with earth walls, ditches and wooden piles that is located in the northeastern part of Germany, south of Magdeburg. The site is very much reminiscent of the world-famous monument Stonehenge, and it is likely that the people there performed very similar rituals to those of their counterparts in what is now Britain 4,300 years ago.

Who lived near Pömmelte, the ‘German Stonehenge’? (DW)

This place reminds me a lot of Woodhenge at the Cahokia complex (Wikipedia), which I was able to visit a few years ago. The presence of such similar structures separated across vast times and places (precluding any chance of cultural contact) is something that we need to think deeply about.

From the article above, I also learned about the Nebra Sky Disc (Wikipedia). Recall that the first cities were trying to replicate a “cosmic order” here on earth.

Related: Hunter-gatherer networks accelerated human evolution (Science Daily)

Humans began developing a complex culture as early as the Stone Age. This development was brought about by social interactions between various groups of hunters and gatherers, a UZH study has now confirmed…

The researchers equipped 53 adult Agta living in woodland in seven interconnected residential camps with tracking devices and recorded every social interaction between members of the different camps over a period of one month. The researchers also did the same for a different group, who lived on the coast….The team of researchers then developed a computer model of this social structure and simulated the complex cultural creation of a plant-based medicinal product.

In this fictitious scenario, the people shared their knowledge of medicinal plants with every encounter and combined this knowledge to develop better remedies. This process gradually leads to the development of a highly effective new medicinal product. According to the researchers’ simulation, an average of 250 (woodland camps) to 500 (coastal camps) rounds of social interactions were required for the medicinal product to emerge.

And see: Social Networks and Cooperation in Hunter-Gatherers (NCBI)

A lesser-known megalithic necropolis: the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum (Wikpedia) 5,000 years ago. Do these look like they were built by people who were filthy and starving?

Related: I only recently heard about this site, but apparently there was a significant industrial complex devoted to the manufacture of flint tools that functioned during the stone age, and well into the Bronze and Iron ages: Grimes Graves (Wikipedia). This gives great insight into the fact that complex specialization of labor and regional comparative advantage have always been with us; they weren’t invented at the time of Smith or Ricardo. We just didn’t fetishize them the way we do now.

And the salt mines of Hallstatt in modern-day Germany have been used for thousands of years since the Bronze Age as well. Apparently, mining required child labor:

Mining there began at least 7,000 years ago and continues modestly today. That makes the UNESCO World Heritage site “the oldest industrial landscape in the world [that’s] still producing,” says [archaeologist Hans] Reschreiter, who has led excavations at Hallstatt for nearly two decades.

But the mine’s peak was during the Bronze and Iron ages, when salt’s sky-high value made Hallstatt one of Europe’s wealthiest communities. Archaeologists understand a great deal about operations then, thanks to an extraordinary hoard of artifacts including leather sacks, food scraps, human feces and millions of used torches.

Many of the finds are made of perishable materials that are usually quick to decay. They survived in the mine’s tunnels because salt is a preservative — the very reason it was in such high demand during Hallstatt’s heyday.

Among the artifacts, the small shoes and caps showed children were in the mine. But researchers needed more evidence to determine whether the young ones were merely tagging along with working parents or actually mining.

To understand the children’s roles, Austrian Academy of Sciences anthropologist Doris Pany-Kucera turned to their graves. In a study of 99 adults from Hallstatt’s cemetery, she found skeletal markers of muscle strain and injury, suggesting many villagers performed hard labor — some from an early age.

Then, in 2019, she reported her analysis of the remains of 15 children and teenagers, finding signs of repetitive work. Children as young as 6 suffered arthritis of the elbow, knee and spine. Several had fractured skulls or were missing bits of bone, snapped from a joint under severe strain. Vertebrae were worn or compressed on all individuals.

Combining clues from the Hallstatt bones and artifacts, researchers traced the children’s possible contributions to the salt industry. They believe the youngest children — 3- to 4-year-olds — may have held the torches necessary for light. By age 8, kids likely assumed hauling and crawling duties, carrying supplies atop their heads or shimmying through crevices too narrow for grown-ups…

The Ancient Practice of Child Labor Is Coming to Light (Discover)

Add this point is important:

It’s no surprise that the young labored at Hallstatt. Children are, and always have been, essential contributors to community and family work. A childhood of play and formal education is a relatively modern concept that even today exists mostly in wealthy societies.

There are those who say that, despite all our technological advancements, we haven’t really reduced the need for human labor. But that’s clearly untrue! We’ve already effectively eliminated the labor of everyone under 18, and from a practical standpoint, nearly everyone over 21. We just forget it because it’s been normalized, but people younger than 18 have labored all throughout human history, even into the early twentieth century. Now they are no longer needed or wanted. And with ever more schooling required for jobs, we’re just increasing the age requirement to enter the workforce. Note that “retirement”—to the extent that it continues to exist—is also a modern phenomenon, eliminating people over 55/60 from the workforce. Labor has most certainly been eliminated, and will continue to be.

Neanderthals and humans co-existed in Europe much longer than we previously thought. (Guardian)

A reminder that many of the earliest human habitats are under the water: Early humans thrived in this drowned South African landscape (Phys.org)

Archaeologists analyzed an ancient cemetery in Hungary, with the distinctly unique elongated skulls the Huns were known for:

They found that Mözs-Icsei dűlő was a remarkably diverse community and were able to identify three distinct groups across two or three generations (96 burials total) until the abandonment of Mözs cemetery around 470 AD: a small local founder group, with graves built in a brick-lined Roman style; a foreign group of twelve individuals of similar isotopic and cultural background, who appear to have arrived around a decade after the founders and may have helped establish the traditions of grave goods and skull deformation seen in later burials; and a group of later burials featuring mingled Roman and various foreign traditions.

51 individuals total, including adult males, females, and children, had artificially deformed skulls with depressions shaped by bandage wrappings, making Mözs-Icsei dűlő one of the largest concentrations of this cultural phenomenon in the region. The strontium isotope ratios at Mözs-Icsei dűlő were also significantly more variable than those of animal remains and prehistoric burials uncovered in the same geographic region of the Carpathian Basin, and indicate that most of Mözs’ adult population lived elsewhere during their childhood. Moreover, carbon and nitrogen isotope data attest to remarkable contributions of millet to the human diet.

Deformed skulls in an ancient cemetery reveal a multicultural community in transition (Phys.org)

See also: Strange, elongated skulls reveal medieval Bulgarian brides were traded for politics (Science)

Speaking of burials: Researchers found 1,000 year old burials in Siberia wearing copper masks: Mummified by accident in copper masks almost 1,000 years ago: but who were they? (Siberian Times) I thought this was fascinating, due to the fact that copper has been shown to kill Coronaviruses, and we have been told to wear masks to prevent transmission. Copper-infused masks are becoming popular (a Google search turned up the above article). Coincidence? Probably.

Religion in South America:

An ancient group of people made ritual offerings to supernatural deities near the Island of the Sun in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia, about 500 years earlier than the Incas, according to an international team of researchers. The team’s findings suggest that organized religion emerged much earlier in the region than previously thought.

Rise of religion pre-dates Incas at Lake Titicaca (phys.org)

This is possibly the coolest scientific study ever conducted: a group of scientists have reconstructed Bronze Age fighting techniques by looking at the wear marks on Bronze Age weapons and armor. Wow! Time to redo that famous fight scene from Troy?

While a graduate student at Newcastle University, [University of Göttingen archaeologist Raphael Hermann] recruited members of a local club devoted to recreating and teaching medieval European combat styles, and asked them to duel with the replicas, using motions found in combat manuals written in the Middle Ages. After recording the combat sequences using high-speed cameras, the researchers noted the type and location of dents and notches left after each clash.

The team assigned characteristic wear patterns to specific sword moves and combinations. If the motions left the same distinctive marks found on Bronze Age swords, Hermann says, it was highly likely that Bronze Age warriors had also used those moves. For example, marks on the replica swords made by a technique known to medieval German duelists as versetzen, or “displacement”—locking blades in an effort to control and dominate an opponent’s weapon—were identical to distinct bulges found on swords from Bronze Age Italy and Great Britain.

Next, Hermann and colleagues put 110 Bronze Age swords from Italy and Great Britain under a microscope and cataloged more than 2500 wear marks. Wear patterns were linked to geography and time, suggesting distinct fighting styles developed over centuries… Displacement, for example, didn’t show up until 1300 B.C.E. and appeared in Italy several centuries before it did in Great Britain.

“In order to fight the way the marks show, there has to be a lot of training involved,” Hermann says. Because the marks are so consistent from sword to sword, they suggest different warriors weren’t swinging at random, but were using well-practiced techniques. Christian Horn, an archaeologist at the University of Gothenburg who was not involved in the research, agrees, and says the experiments offer quantitative evidence of things archaeologists had only been able to speculate about.

Sword-wielding scientists show how ancient fighting techniques spread across Bronze Age Europe (Science Magazine)

This is also important from a historical standpoint: it indicates that the Bronze Age likely saw the rise of a class of professional fighters, as opposed to the all-hands-on-deck mêlée fighting style of all adult males that probably characterized Stone Age warfare. Because fighting became “professionalized” due to the existence of these bronze weapons–which required extensive training to use effectively—the use of force passed into the hands of a specialist warrior caste who were able to impose their will on lesser-armed populations.

This probably explains at least some of the origins of inequality, as those who specialized in the use of violence (as opposed to farming or trading) could then perforce become a ruling class. Inequality always rises when the means of force become confined to a specific class of people. Note also that money in coined form was first invented to pay specialist mercenaries in the Greek states of Asia Minor. These mercenaries were likely the ones who were training in the intensive combat techniques described by the study above.

Related: Medieval battles weren’t as chaotic as people think nor as movies portray! (Reddit) Given how humans react to violence psychologically, how would medieval battles really look, as opposed to the battle scenes depicted in movies? (Hint: not like a mosh pit)

Possibly related: : Modern men are wimps, according to new book (Phys.org). Controversial, but likely correct; our ancestors had much more physical lives and the less fit would not have reproduced as well. My unprovable notion is that we became so effective at warfare that the most violent people would have died off in these types of conflicts, leading to more placid people having a reproductive advantage. Thus, we become less violent over time.

Definitely related: What Compelled the Roman Way of Warfare? Killing for the Republic (Real Clear Defense)

Any polity can field an army through compulsion or other violent means. What matters more is what makes your average person choose to stay on the battlefield. [Steele] Brand argues the Roman Republic motivated its soldiers by publicly honoring at all times the initiative, strength, discipline, perseverance, courage, and loyalty of individual citizens. Moreover, it was this combination of public and private values, flexible political institutions, and a tailored upbringing that gradually culminated in the superiority of the Roman legion against the arguably technically superior Macedonian phalanx at Pydna. Brand calls the entirety of this system “civic militarism,” defined as “self defense writ large for the state.”

Paging Dr. Julian Jaynes: Majority of authors ‘hear’ their characters speak, finds study (Guardian). See also The Origin of Consciousness Reading Companion Part 1 (Put a Number On It)

Collaspe files:

…a new movement called “collapsology”—which warns of the possible collapse of our societies as we know them—is gaining ground.

With climate change exposing how unsustainable the economic and social model based on fossil fuels is, they fear orthodox thinking may be speeding us to our doom.

The theory first emerged from France’s Momentum Institute, and was popularised by a 2015 book, “How Everything Can Collapse”. Some of its supporters, like former French environment minister Yves Cochet, believe the coronavirus crisis is another sign of impending catastrophe.

While the mathematician, who founded France’s Green party, “still hesitates” about saying whether the virus will be the catalyst for a domino effect, he quoted the quip that “it’s too early to say if it’s too late”.

Yet Cochet—whose book “Before the Collapse” predicts a meltdown in the next decade—is convinced that the virus will lead to “a global economic crisis of greater severity than has been imagined”.

The 74-year-old, who retired to France’s rural Brittany region so he could live more sustainably, is also worried about an impending “global disaster with lots of victims, both economic and otherwise”.

“What is happening now is a symptom of a whole series of weaknesses,” warned Professor Yves Citton of Paris VIII University.

“It isn’t the end of the world but a warning about something that has already been set in motion,” he told AFP, “a whole series of collapses that have begun”.

The slide may be slow, said Jean-Marc Jancovici, who heads the Shift Project think-tank which aims to “free economics from carbon”.

But “a little step has been taken (with the virus) that there is no going back”, he argued.

Others have a more chilling take.

“The big lesson of history… and of the Horsemen of the Apocalypse is that pestilence, war and famine tend to follow in each others’ wake,” said Pablo Servigne, an ecologist and agricultural engineer who co-wrote “How Everything Can Collapse”.

“We have a pandemic which could lead to another shock—wars, conflicts and famines,” he added.

“And famines will make us more vulnerable to other pandemics.”

‘Collapsology’: Is this the end of civilisation as we know it? (Phys.org)

The last ice age (or Last Glacial Maximum) peaked around 26,000 years ago. The earth warmed over the coming millennia, driven by an increase in radiation from the sun due to changes in the earth’s orbit (the Milankovic cycles) amplified by CO₂ released from warming water, which further warmed the atmosphere.

But even as the earth warmed it was interrupted by cooler periods known as “stadials”. These were caused by melt water from melting ice sheets which cool large regions of the ocean.

Marked climate variability and extreme weather events during the early Holocene retarded development of sustainable agriculture.

Sparse human settlements existed about 12,000 – 11,000 years ago. The flourishing of human civilisation from about 10,000 years ago, and in particular from 7,000 years ago, critically depended on stabilisation of climate conditions which allowed planting and harvesting of seed and growing of crops, facilitating growth of villages and towns and thereby of civilisation.

Peak warming periods early in the Holocene were associated with prevalence of heavy monsoons and heavy floods, likely reflected by Noah’s ark story.

The climate stabilised about 7,000 – 5,000 years ago. This allowed the flourishing of civilisations along the Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Indus and the Yellow River.

The ancient river valley civilisations cultivation depended on flow and ebb cycles, in turn dependent on seasonal rains and melting snows in the mountain sources of the rivers. These formed the conditions for production of excess food.

When such conditions declined due to droughts or floods, civilisations collapsed. Examples include the decline of the Egyptian, Mesopotamian and Indus civilisations about 4,200 years ago due to severe drought.

Throughout the Holocene relatively warm periods, such as the Medieval Warm Period (900-1200 AD), and cold periods, such as the Little Ice Age (around 1600 – 1700 AD), led to agricultural crises with consequent hunger, epidemics and wars. A classic account of the consequences of these events is presented in the book Collapse by Jared Diamond.

It’s not just Middle Eastern civilisations. Across the globe and throughout history the rise and fall of civilisations such as the Maya in Central America, the Tiwanaku in Peru, and the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, have been determined by the ebb and flow of droughts and floods.

Greenhouse gas levels were stable or declined between 8,000-6,000 years ago, but then began to rise slowly after 6,000 years ago. According to William Ruddiman at the University of Virginia, this rise in greenhouse gases was due to deforestation, burning and land clearing by people. This stopped the decline in greenhouse gases and ultimately prevented the next ice age. If so, human-caused climate change began much earlier than we usually think.

Rise and fall in solar radiation continued to shift the climate. The Medieval Warm Period was driven by an increase in solar radiation, while the Little Ice Age was caused at least in part by a decrease.

Now we’ve changed the game again by releasing over 600 billion tonnes of carbon into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, raising CO₂ concentrations from around 270 parts per million to about 400 parts per million…

Climate and the rise and fall of civilizations: a lesson from the past (The Conversation)

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