Final Thoughts on Jordan Peterson

I’m going to sum up my final objections to Jordan Peterson and move on, because I’ve got other things to talk about.

Real ideological diversity

I’m going to begin with this quote from economist Richard Wolff, referring to his teaching of Marxist economics in university:

34:15: “I think, if the universities and colleges had a commetment to diversity of perspective the way they now at least say they have with diversity of gender and race and all of that, then we would have had people like me teaching–lots more of them than I am; many like me–teaching. And then we would have at least confronted a generation of students with the alternatives that they could have then thought about and made up their own minds. But this country has never, in my lifetime, had the confidence in its own people to give them real freedom of choice in learning. They’ve given them a very restricgted diet and we live with the consequences.”

Chapo Trap House Episode 186 – Executive Producer feat. Richard Wolff (Soundcloud)

This is an odd complaint considering Peterson’s contention that entire disciplines, including sociology, anthropology, biology, history, not to mention law and education, are intent on indoctrinating unsuspecting students with “postmodern Neo-Marxism.” Apparently the only place on a college campus where you won’t hear about Marx is the economics department!

I read this as saying that universities use diversity of gender/ethnic groups as a screen to cover their lack of diversity on actual intellectual ideas which are threatening to the ruling class. I agree. As I’ve said before, identity politics is a great way of neutering the Left.

Yet people are convinced “Marxists” have taken over some of the largest corporations in America even while entire areas of the country (including the national government) are effectively one party rule by Republicans, a party farther to the right than any other party existing in the developed world.

The Real Cultural Marxists:

This article about the programmer named Christopher Wylie whose ideas led to the founding of Cambridge Analytica and who contributed to Trump’s victory, has been widely read in the wake of the scandals surrounding that company. I found this part to be most interesting given the right wing demonization of cultural Marxism and handwringing over things like gay marriage:

A few months later, in autumn 2013, Wylie met Steve Bannon. At the time, he was editor-in-chief of Breitbart, which he had brought to Britain to support his friend Nigel Farage in his mission to take Britain out of the European Union.

What was he like?

“Smart,” says Wylie. “Interesting. Really interested in ideas. He’s the only straight man I’ve ever talked to about intersectional feminist theory. He saw its relevance straightaway to the oppressions that conservative, young white men feel.”

Wylie meeting Bannon was the moment petrol was poured on a flickering flame. Wylie lives for ideas. He speaks 19 to the dozen for hours at a time. He had a theory to prove. And at the time, this was a purely intellectual problem. Politics was like fashion, he told Bannon.

“[Bannon] got it immediately. He believes in the whole Andrew Breitbart doctrine that politics is downstream from culture, so to change politics you need to change culture. And fashion trends are a useful proxy for that. Trump is like a pair of Uggs, or Crocs, basically. So how do you get from people thinking ‘Ugh. Totally ugly’ to the moment when everyone is wearing them? That was the inflection point he was looking for.”

[…]

It was Bannon who took this idea to the Mercers: Robert Mercer – the co-CEO of the hedge fund Renaissance Technologies, who used his billions to pursue a rightwing agenda, donating to Republican causes and supporting Republican candidates – and his daughter Rebekah.

Nix and Wylie flew to New York to meet the Mercers in Rebekah’s Manhattan apartment.

“She loved me. She was like, ‘Oh we need more of your type on our side!’”

Your type?

The gays. She loved the gays. So did Steve [Bannon]. He saw us as early adopters. He figured, if you can get the gays on board, everyone else will follow. It’s why he was so into the whole Milo [Yiannopoulos] thing.”

‘I made Steve Bannon’s psychological warfare tool’: meet the data war whistleblower (Guardian)

It seems like a sort of projection–create a conspiracy theory about evil Marxists manipulating the culture for their political agenda and you cover the fact that you are actually doing what you are accusing your opponents of doing! Note that Breitbart is one of the major outlets pushing of the cultural Marxist conspiracy theory while at the same time believing that “politics is donwstream from culture;” supposedly the central idea of cultural Marxism. However, although the vast cultural Marxist conspiracy on campuses remains in the realm of speculation, Bannon’s and Mercer’s actions are actually documented.

So who’s really manipulating culture to their own ends here, college professors, or the people who, you know, actually wield political power in the real world? Personally, I’m more afraid of Cambridge Analytica and Breitbart than postmodernist professors or transgender student activists on campus.

Is the PC Threat Exaggerated?

I suspect that the campus free-speech threat is greatly exaggerated for political purposes. Consider this quote from Danieli Bolelli, a teacher and writer based in Los Angeles on the Joe Rogan podcast:

“I think a lot of this stuff is also a little bit media created in the sense that, ‘Let’s find the most batshit crazy person on that side; let’s put the spotlight on them,’ which makes everybody go, ‘What the fuck, who are those crazy people?’ It’s kind of like if you were to pick the Westboro Baptist Church and make it be representative of Christianity. It’s not, but if you keep putting the spotlight there, you’ll create this perception [which will] create a backlash and it becomes this thing where…”

“Like, that’s one of the funny things that I was noticing, because…I really don’t like political correctness. I really don’t like academia. There are ten thousand of these things where I’m completely on board with not liking some of these things.”

“But then there’s another side where…I have been teaching at university since 2001. I don’t think I’ve seen once a case of the kind of political correctness that I see in articles in media. Not once. I was doing the math. I had probably, maybe 11,000 students in my classes over the course of those years. I haven’t had one person ever defend hard-core Communism, or make an argument…even among my colleagues which I have issues with for other reasons, that’s never been one of the things.”

“I keep hearing about it, I keep reading about it in papers, but why is it when that’s how I make my living–I’m on college campuses all the time–I hardly ever see it?”

“I’m not saying that it’s not true; of course these stories true. There’s no argument. But what I’m wondering is how much do they get blown out of proportion because you get clicks, because it makes for an interesting narrative which then some people also live off that kind of narrative. How much of it is where you are putting a spotlight on and making a rare exception be the norm versus how much it’s a real thing?”

“I mean, I teach in Southern California. Santa Monica is one of the most liberal places around. If this thing is as dominant as advertised, I should be running into it all the time, right? And I don’t like that stuff so I would be sensitive…I would be paying attention. And I don’t see it. So I’m like, ‘Hmmm, what’s going on here?'”

“…I am not arguing that they [Jordan Peterson, Bret Weinstein] are wrong, they’re completely right. My issue is from there to arguing that this is this super prevalent thing. It’s like, from one story to say instead there’s a communist conspiracy to brainwash us all, we are starting from a completely understandable presence and taking it twenty-five steps too far.”

Joe Rogan Experience #1091 – Daniele Bolelli (YouTube)

Rogan responds:

“I agree. But I think what’s happening is more of these unusual situations are occurring and so people are terrified of this spreading like wildfire across the country. Because kids are very easily influenced. And they’re also idealistic. They want to change the world.”

What’s the truth? Bolelli’s experience is backed up by data:

As Acadia University political science professor Jeffrey Sachs points out, according to a General Social Survey (GSS) dataset, “young people aged 18-34 are the most tolerant of potentially offensive speech and trending upward,” meaning not only that young people are already the most tolerant of offensive speech, but that they’re getting more tolerant…

A Heterodox Academy analysis of the FIRE disinvitation data shows that the most successful attempts to shut down speakers have come from right-leaning groups shutting down speech with which they don’t agree, but this hasn’t stopped pundits and politicians from seeing the student left as the gravest threat to free speech.

Are liberal college students creating a free speech crisis? Not according to data. (NBC News)

While “scalp hunting” is not anything I endorse, these have more the character of “witch hunts” than any kind of Leftist dogma. Witch hunts are a sad part of human nature, and appear to be prevalent in the United States for some reason. Remember, that Communists and anarchists were the primary victims of witch hunts during the twentieth century. While unfounded accusations hurled at innocent people are always a bad thing, is this really more prevalent now than at any time in the past? Or is it more playing to white male insecurity and fear of quotas in a time of disappearing job opportunities? After all, in the 1960’s, Leftist radicals set bombs off on campuses! Professors threatened by the “extreme left” end up as millionaires. Those menaced by the extreme right end up in the morgue (e.g. Heather Heyer; Anders Breivik’s and Dylan Roof’s victims, etc.).

Why is the Left so *violent*???

And yet, as Rogan opined earlier in the episode:

What’s fascinating to me about human beings of today is I’ve never seen a time where people are more interested in other people doing what they want them to do. Like, other people thinking the way they want them to think; other people behaving the way they want them to…People, it seems to me are more concerned with controlling people’s expression and thinking today than ever before. And even more so on the left.

I’m seeing this interesting trend today where people…it’s almost like we don’t like where things are headed. We don’t like what’s happening, we don’t like who the president is, so people are being real adamant about enforcing certain types of behavior. And that in turn, just like we were talking about people suppressing certain types of alcohol, that in turn …makes people rebel.

I feel like there’s more people leaning Right today than ever before. And I attribute it entirely to the people on the Left.

Yet, the data shows that this is factually untrue:

For nearly 50 years, the General Social Survey (GSS) has asked Americans about their tolerance for offensive speech. Some questions include: Should an anti-American Muslim cleric be permitted to teach in a public school? Should the local library stock books hostile to religion? On almost every question, young people aged 18 to 34 are the most likely to support free speech...Not only are young people the most likely to express tolerance for offensive speech, but with almost every question posed by the GSS, each generation of young people has been more tolerant than the last…

And it’s definitely not “spreading like wildfire,” despite what Rogan promotes on his show:

[T]hese incidents are rare. Take the phenomenon of blocking invited speakers from speaking on campus, also known as no-platforming. The Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) reported 35 no-platforming attempts in 2017; out of those, 19 succeeded. In a country with over 4,700 schools, that hardly constitutes a crisis.

Finally, despite claims that college administrators are increasingly coddling students with speech codes, FIRE shows that the opposite is the case. The number of universities with restrictive speech codes has been dropping each year for the past decade and is currently at an all-time low. Most universities are not the ideological safe spaces their critics imagine.

In fact, our speech is often much more restricted off campus than on. Consider the workplace, where most non-students spend the bulk of their time when not at home. Once you’re on the job, most First Amendment rights disappear. The things you say, the clothing you wear, even the bumper stickers on the car you parked in the company lot — all can be restricted by private-sector employers. Perhaps the reason campus free speech controversies can sound so strange is because few of us are aware of how much we are already shielded from hateful or offensive speech.

The Campus Free Speech Crisis is a Myth. Here are the Facts (Washington Post)

In other words, the right-wing propaganda, pitched mainly at a demographic that has never set foot on a college campus or a corporate boardroom, is working as intended.

The propaganda tells us: Don’t worry about your job going away. Don’t worry about not being able to access health care. Don’t worry about all the people dying in your town from Fentanyl. Worry about the real threat: liberals who want to control your speech. Propaganda works.

I’ve also pointed out numerous instances of right-wing political correctness that stifles speech, yet the partisan desire — especially on the right — to manufacture fear of a particularly “illiberal left” is an important part of the conservative playbook in the Trump era. This despite the fact that President Donald Trump has openly attempted to use the power of the presidency and the resources of government to silence athletes and journalists he doesn’t like. Data is unlikely to change this attitude…being “anti-PC” is now effectively a form of tribalist identity politics. When I draw attention to right-wing threats to freedom of speech, these counterexamples — whether data-based or anecdotal — tend to threaten anti-PC identity and cause membership to close ranks.

If we consider the rise not only of anti-college views in popular media, but in organizations that seem to exist primarily to spread anti-college, anti-student and anti-faculty propaganda — like Turning Point USA or Campus Reform — it becomes clear that characterizing the campus left as “against free speech” appeals to large numbers of people who otherwise care little about quotidian campus affairs. Anti-PC and anti-college identity politics align with the faux-populism driving broader right-wing politics today.

Because of such propaganda, conservatives who see themselves, in some ways rightly, as victims of “the elite” are able to position themselves as fighting a scary, authoritarian, left-wing caricature. Indeed, the only way it’s possible to see left-wing college students as a group whose power rivals that of the presidency or the billionaire donor class is by embracing the cartoon image of lefty students as little authoritarians, and promoting it despite counterevidence. The political investment in the myth of the authoritarian college student is simply more powerful than even the most comprehensive data analyses on the subject.

Anti-Anti-Communism

Peterson is virulently anti-Communist and anti-Marxist, which to him are essentially the same thing. He insists that “Marxist” philosophy is based primarily on envy of the successful and inevitably leads to the gulags and reeducation camps.

This article cast aspersions on that rigid black-and-white thinking and is worth a read:

Since nuance in the story of 20th-century communism might ‘reduce the ease of our thoughts and the clarity of our feelings’, anti-communists will attack, dismiss or discredit any archival findings, interviews or survey results recalling Eastern Bloc achievements in science, culture, education, health care or women’s rights. They were bad people, and everything they did must be bad; we invert the ‘halo’ terminology and call this the ‘pitchfork effect’. Those offering a more nuanced narrative than one of unending totalitarian terror are dismissed as apologists or useful idiots. Contemporary intellectual opposition to the idea that ‘bad people are all bad’ elicits outrage and an immediate accusation that you are no better than those out to rob us of our ‘God-given rights’.

In 1984, the anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote that you could be ‘anti anti-communism’ without being in favour of communism…In other words, you could stand up against bullies such as Joseph McCarthy without defending Joseph Stalin. If we carefully analyse the arguments of those attempting to control the historical narrative of 20th-century communism, this does not mean that we are apologising for, or excusing the atrocities or the lost lives of millions of men and women who suffered for their political beliefs.

The merits of taking an anti-anti-communism stance (Aeon)

What is the real reason for such Red-baiting and scare mongering, and why has it increased so markedly?

Conservative and nationalist political leaders in the US and across Europe already incite fear with tales of the twin monsters of Islamic fundamentalism and illegal immigration. But not everyone believes that immigration is a terrible threat, and most Right-wing conservatives don’t think that Western countries are at risk of becoming theocratic states under Sharia law. Communism, on the other hand, provides the perfect new (old) enemy. If your main policy agenda is shoring up free-market capitalism, protecting the wealth of the superrich and dismantling what little is left of social safety nets, then it is useful to paint those who envision more redistributive politics as wild-eyed Marxists bent on the destruction of Western civilisation.

What better time to resurrect the spectre of communism? As youth across the world become increasingly disenchanted with the savage inequalities of capitalism, defenders of the status quo will stop at nothing to convince younger voters about the evils of collectivist ideas. They will rewrite history textbooks, build memorials, and declare days of commemoration for the victims of communism – all to ensure that calls for social justice or redistribution are forever equated with forced labour camps and famine.

The merits of taking an anti-anti-communism stance (Aeon)

Peterson’s anti-communist zealotry and conflating political correctness with Marxism is a very useful message for those afraid that people may start questioning the increasing distribution of income upward. Peterson’s message is: don’t complain, don’t participate, just focus on climbing the existing hierarchy. This may be why so many deep pockets are willing to contribute to his Patreon account.

Identity Politics

Are identity politics necessarily bad? Isn’t that what all politics is? After all, almost every policy will net winners and losers. Shouldn’t we care which group our representatives are in? That our neighbors are in? That we are in? Almost every politician will try and claim affiliation with their constituents. How could they not?

…all politics is identity politics. It is not just the Left that appeals to people based on their background and identity, all ideologies do so. All politicians campaign by highlighting their similarities with the voters, their common identity and by claiming to best represent the people. The Right is just as reliant on identity politics.

Think about a typical political campaign, regardless of political party. How does a candidate present themselves? They usually begin by emphasising their connection to the constituency and how long they’ve lived there. It’s certainly a benefit if they were born there and voters react negatively to “outsiders”. Then they’ll show their bond with the community, their participation in local events, traditions etc. Always the emphasis is on how similar they are to the constituents, how much they have in common with the voters. ‘Vote for me because I’m just like you, I can best represent you because I have gone through the same experiences you have’. They’ll show their bond with local industries and interest groups, their shared religion and patriotism (especially in America).

All of this identity politics. All politicians aim to get voters to identify with them, the only difference is method. It’s only a question of whether they highlight their common race, religion, class, geography, occupation etc. The goal of every campaign is to make voters identify with the candidate and believe that they are part of the same group.

All politics is identity politics (Whistling in the Wind)

Does anyone remember Sarah Palin and her “real Americans” who go hunting, attend church regularly, have kids and drive pickup trucks? Does anyone seriously think Palin was chosen because she was the most qualified candidate for vice president available to the McCain campaign? Or was it for reasons of “identity politics?” What about Mike Pence and his affiliation with Christian Evangelicals, a core part of the right-wing Republican coalition?

Peterson seems to believe that any sort of group affiliation is bad. But, without becoming a part of a larger group, how can one possibly effect change? We are a part of multiple, overlapping groups whether we like it or not: countries, families, workplaces, ethnicities, languages, occupations, etc., all tie us to other people and groups in various ways. It’s impossible for that not to be the case.

Now, I agree that neglecting people’s individualism is a bad thing. And certainly some groups aren’t allowed to speak for you just because they happen to be the same race, gender, and so forth. For example, if some white supremacist group claimed to speak for me because we’re the same ethnic “group” I would raise serious objections. This is not in dispute. People are more alike then they are different, as Peterson points out.

But dismissing the idea that there are no classes and that they are never in conflict is going a bit too far. The view that there are no classes, I would argue, is as against the grain of mainstream sociology as insisting that there are no genders.

Do Critics of Capitalism Hate Western Culture?

Peterson seems to imply that any criticism of capitalism is tantamount to Marxism. Again, maybe this isn’t accurate; it’s hard to tell. He also seems to imply that critics of capitalism (such as his alleged postmodernists) have a grudge against Western society and want to undermine it out of some notion of collective guilt.

Is Western society (whatever that is) entirely defined by capitalism? After all, it was around thousands of years before capitalism came along. In fact, many of the core institutions of the West are in opposition to capitalism! The Catholic Church, touted by many alt-Right types as the foundation of Western civilization, has been critical of capitalist materialism, it’s atomization of people, its lack of values and its callousness towards the poor and downtrodden. Many traditional social arrangements were destroyed, from the aristocracy to craft guilds to land tenure systems, in order to make way for capitalism and liberalized markets. The West existed under the Classical World, the Dark Ages, and Medieval feudalism.

Criticism of capitalism != Communism

Capitalism != Western civilization

There’s plenty to disagree with in Marxism if you’re so inclined, just as there is with any economic philosophy. But Peterson never engages with the actual philosophy itself. This is a good brief summary of what Marxism actually argues:

Marx started with the presumption that all markets operate much in the way the classical political economists then (and neoclassical economists today) presume. He then showed that even when all commodities exchange at their values and workers receive the value of their labor power (that is, no cheating), capitalists are able to appropriate a surplus-value (that is, there is exploitation). No special modifications of the presumption of perfect markets need to be made. As long as capitalists are able, after the exchange of money for the commodity labor power has taken place, to extract labor from labor power during the course of commodity production, there will be an extra value, a surplus-value, that capitalists are able to appropriate for doing nothing.

The point is, the Marxian theory of the distribution of income identifies an unequal distribution of income that is endemic to capitalism—and thus a fundamental violation of the idea of “just deserts”—even if all markets operate according to the unrealistic assumptions of mainstream economists. And that intrinsically unequal distribution of income within capitalism becomes even more unequal once we consider all the ways the mainstream assumptions about markets are violated on a daily basis within the kinds of capitalism we witness today.

Utopia and Inequality (Real World Economics Review)

Sloppy Rhetoric

Peterson frequently employs “snarl words” when discussing his opponents and critics (“Postmodernist,” “cultural (or Neo-) Marxist,” “feminist,” “social justice warrior”) or broad one-dimensional characterizations: (“PC culture,” the “radical Left,” and so on).

This is not what I would expect of a serious intellectual. His constant use of these phrases and terms should cause him to be a laughing stock, not taken seriously as a public intellectual. If he used such sloppy reasoning in his psychology career, he would not have gotten very far.

For example, Neo-marxism, to the extent that it exists, is a complex intellecual phenomenon. Conencting it to HR departments and blank slatism is intellectualy lazy.

What is Neo-Marxism?

Neo-Marxism is a huge area…both the Frankfurt School and Dependency Theory are important types of Neo-Marxism. Here are some others.

(1) The Hungarian Marxist, Georg Lukacs, and the “Budapest School” that came out of his work.
(2) The Italian Marxist, Antonio Gramsci, and the endless discourse on “hegemony” that has followed in his wake.
(3) Louis Althusser, Nicos Poulantzas, and the other structuralists.
(4) The analytical Marxist (or as they sometimes call themselves, the “no-bullshit Marxist) school: Jon Elster, John Roemer, Adam Przeworski, Erik Olin Wright, Robert Brenner, and others.
(5) Marxist feminism: Johanna Brenner, Nancy Hartsock, and others.
(6) Marxist state theory, most notably, of late, the French regulation school (see Bob Jessop’s work for a good summary of this work).
(7) Two schools of thought coming out of the U Mass – Amherst economics department: the social structures of accumulations school (Bowles and Gintis) and the “Rethinking Marxism” crowd (Resnick and Wolff).
(8) Marxist literary criticism – a huge enterprise, of which Terry Eagleton and Frederic Jameson are probably the leading lights.
(9) The “political Marxism” perspective growing out of Robert Brenner’s work, including Ellen Meiksins Wood, Benno Teschke, and others.
(10) Critical geography – the best-known thinker here would be David Harvey.
And on and on…
So, you see, Neo-Marxism isn’t just a compact school of thought. It’s an entire range of ways of seeing the humanities and the social sciences. If you really want an introduction to the whole range, I’d suggest that you check out the online version of Erik Olin Wright’s graduate class: Sociology 621: Class, State, and Ideology, found at https://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~wright/sociology621-2011.htm

What are the key ideas of Neo-Marxist thought? (Quora)

Similar things could be said about feminist or postmodernist thought.

So which is Peterson talking about? That’s the problem–he never engages with any of these ideas, instead just associating them with everything he doesn’t like (e.g. gender quotas and speech policing).

This article does a good job of explaining what’s wrong with Peterson’s constant invoking of the phrase “cultural (or Neo-) marxism”:”

Scholars…do not…suggest that the Frankfurt School or other “cultural Marxists” ever had a plan to destroy the moral fibre of Western civilization, or to use their critique of culture as a springboard to a totalitarian regime. That would be difficult to argue in all seriousness because Western “cultural Marxists” going back to the 1920s have typically been hostile to state power, social oppression of the individual, and Soviet Marxism itself. Moreover, they have shown considerable variation among themselves in their attitudes to specific social, moral, and cultural issues. There is no cultural Marxist master plan.

More generally, serious intellectual history cannot ignore the complex cross-currents of thought within the Left in Western liberal democracies. The Left has always been riven with factionalism, not least in recent decades, and it now houses diverse attitudes to almost any imaginable aspect of culture (as well as to traditional economic issues). Many components of the Western cultural Left can only be understood when seen as (in part) reactions to other such components, while being deeply influenced by Western Marxism’s widespread criticism and rejection of Soviet communism.

In the upshot, all the talk of cultural Marxism from figures on the (far) Right of politics is of little aid to understanding our current cultural and political situation. At best, this conception of cultural Marxism is too blunt an intellectual instrument to be useful for analysing current trends. At its worst, it mixes wild conspiracy theorizing with self-righteous moralism.

None of this is to deny the moderate thesis that much contemporary cultural criticism has roots that trace back to the 1960s New Left, the Frankfurt and Birmingham Schools, and various Marxist theories of culture. In that sense, contemporary cultural criticism extends a cultural Marxist tradition, but this tradition largely defined itself against Soviet Marxism. Theoretically, at least, it displays an antipathy to authoritarianism, and it aspires to liberate the autonomy of individuals.

Furthermore, contemporary cultural criticism (and much left-wing political thought and activism) has morphed into a form of Western post-Marxism. It has not only turned away from Marxist-Leninism, but evolved to a point where it has lost much contact with Marxism itself.

Current left-wing activism can, indeed, display hyperbolic, philistine, and authoritarian tendencies, but these have little to do with any influence from Marx, Soviet totalitarianism, or the work of the Frankfurt School. They have more, I suspect, to do with tendencies toward moral and political purity in almost any movement that seeks social change…

Cultural Marxism and our Current Culture Wars, Part 2 (The Conversation)

Neither does Peterson ever seriously engage with the ideas of Postmodernism:

“Postmodernism” …is often used to imply some divorcing of a political debate from objective truth or reality and isn’t actually rooted in an understanding of postmodern philosophy. Instead, it’s used to downplay evidence someone doesn’t like as being subjective while upholding evidence someone does like as objective.

A field guide to Jordan Peterson’s political arguments (Medium)

I’ve never seen him engage with any of these specific ideas, just pull them out of context to pillory them. This is not what I expect of someone who is held up as a serious scholar and an important public intellectual whose ideas are worth paying attention to. To claim that mantle, he must take others’ ideas seriously as well.

This video does a very good job of debunking Peterson’s (and the alt-right more generally), favorite pet theory:

Crackpot Mysticism

The last time we mixed together the anger and economic pain of large numbers of white males, radical anticommunism and esoteric mysticism, we didn’t end up with a very good result, especially when the society was full of disillusioned military veterans.

This article by Pankaj Mishra seems to have hit a nerve: Jordan Peterson and Fascist Mysticism (New York Review of Books)

Mishra put his finger on something that bothered me a great deal but couldn’t quite articulate.

Now, I happen to know a bit about this stuff. Raiders of the Lost Ark is my favorite film, and I spent quite a long time coming up with my own “Americans versus Nazis and the Occult” idea for a novel (which I’ll keep to myself). But as part of that, I did extensive research into the role that occult ideas played in the rise of the Nazi Party, and the extent to which these societies played in the social organization of the radical extremist parties in Europe. See, for example, the Thule Society:

The Thule Society was a German occultist and völkisch group founded in Munich right after World War I, named after a mythical northern country in Greek legend. The society is notable chiefly as the organization that sponsored the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP; German Workers’ Party), which was later reorganized by Adolf Hitler into the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP or Nazi Party). According to Hitler biographer Ian Kershaw, the organization’s “membership list … reads like a Who’s Who of early Nazi sympathizers and leading figures in Munich”, including Rudolf Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Hans Frank, Julius Lehmann, Gottfried Feder, Dietrich Eckart, and Karl Harrer.

See also The Myth of the Twentieth Century:

[Alfred] Rosenberg was inspired by the theories of Arthur de Gobineau, in his 1853–1855 book An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, and by Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Rosenberg’s The Myth of the Twentieth Century was conceived as a sequel to Chamberlain’s 1899 book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century. Rosenberg believed that God created mankind as separate, differentiated races in a cascading hierarchy of nobility of virtue, not as separate individuals or as entities with “blank slate” natures. Rosenberg harshly rejected the idea of a “globular” mankind of homogeneity of nature as counter-factual, and asserted each biological race possesses a discrete, unique soul, claiming the Caucasoid Aryan race, with Germanic Nordics supposedly composing its vanguard elite, as qualitatively superior, in a vaguely “ontological” way, in comparison to all other ethnic and racial groupings: the Germanic Nordic Aryan as Platonic ideal of humankind. Other influences included the anti-modernist, “revolutionary” ideas of Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner’s Holy Grail romanticism inspired by the neo-Buddhist thesis of Arthur Schopenhauer, Haeckelian mystical vitalism, the medieval German philosopher Meister Eckhart and the heirs of his mysticism and Nordicist Aryanism in general.

Or a later example from after the War:

It isn’t hard these days to find discussions of Savitri Devi’s books on neo-Nazi web forums, especially The Lightning and the Sun, which expounds the theory that Hitler was an avatar – an incarnation – of the Hindu god Vishnu, and Gold in the Furnace, which urges true believers to trust that National Socialism will rise again. The American extreme-right website Counter-Currents hosts an extensive online archive of her life and work.

Her views are reaching a wider public, too, thanks to American alt-right leaders such as Richard Spencer and Steve Bannon, former Trump chief strategist and chair of Breitbart News, who have taken up the account of history as a cyclical battle between good and evil — a theory she shared with other 20th Century mystical fascists.

Savitri Devi: The mystical fascist being resurrected by the alt-right (BBC)

This isn’t the place to go into great detail about this. But I do know that similarly fruity and half-baked ideas were very popular with the small cabal of radicals who took over Germany’s government when Weimar fell. Ideas of an “Volkish” spirit outside of the real plane of existence were commonly held by many Nazis. So were “blood and soil” ideas and racist concepts that you see today in many “race realist” and HBD circles.

Nowhere in his published writings does Peterson reckon with the moral fiascos of his gurus and their political ramifications; he seems unbothered by the fact that thinking of human relations in such terms as dominance and hierarchy connects too easily with such nascent viciousness such as misogyny, anti-Semitism and Islamophobia. He might argue that his maps of meaning aim at helping lost individuals rather than racists, ultra-nationalists, or imperialists. But he can’t plausibly claim, given his oft-expressed hostility to the “murderous equity doctrine” of feminists, and other progressive ideas, that he is above the fray of our ideological and culture wars.

Indeed, the modern fascination with myth has never been free from an illiberal and anti-democratic agenda. Richard Wagner, along with many German nationalists, became notorious for using myth to regenerate the volk and stoke hatred of the aliens—largely Jews—who he thought polluted the pure community rooted in blood and soil. By the early twentieth century, ethnic-racial chauvinists everywhere—Hindu supremacists in India as well as Catholic ultra-nationalists in France—were offering visions to uprooted peoples of a rooted organic society in which hierarchies and values had been stable. As Karla Poewe points out in New Religions and the Nazis (2005), political cultists would typically mix “pieces of Yogic and Abrahamic traditions” with “popular notions of science—or rather pseudo-science—such as concepts of ‘race,’ ‘eugenics,’ or ‘evolution.’” It was this opportunistic amalgam of ideas that helped nourish “new mythologies of would-be totalitarian regimes.”

Wither Blank Slatism?

Peterson often accuses his opponents of “blank slatism,” that is, believing differences in gender and abilities are simply “cultural constructs” and the product of an unjust social order. He has never, as far as I can tell, positively identified or referred to this in the actual writings of his opponents. He is fond of quoting Orwell’s jibe about socialists “not loving the poor but hating the rich.” He quotes that one endlessly. But he takes it out of context from a book where Orwell advocated FOR socialism, as this article points out:

Orwell flat-out says that anybody who evaluates the merits of socialist policies by the personal qualities of socialists themselves is an idiot. Peterson concludes that Orwell thought socialist policies was flawed because socialists themselves were bad people. I don’t think there is a way of reading Peterson other than as extremely stupid or extremely dishonest, but one can be charitable and assume he simply didn’t read the book that supposedly gave him his grand revelation about socialism.

The Intellectual We Deserve (Current Affairs)

For example, I’ve never heard Peterson utter even one actual quote from Marx! I mean, it’s not like the man never wrote anything. If his ideas inevitably lead to mass murder and the gulag, then why not provide direct quotes which back that up? Even Postmodernists are never cited directly, only books about them, such as Explaining Postmodernism.

Neither Derrida nor Foucault is cited in 12 Rules for Life. Apparently, not only has Peterson never bothered to actually read them, he seems not to have even read their Wikipedia entries. The only relevant citation is of a book called Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault, which he customarily recommends at speaking engagements. The author, Stephen Hicks, is Executive Director of the Center for Ethics and Entrepreneurship at Rockford University, and an acolyte of Ayn Rand. Armed with this dubious secondary source, Peterson is left making statements that are not only mired in factual error, but espouse a comically reductive conception of how social life and history work. He takes a common misunderstanding at face value, proceeding to build a whole outlook on it.

Postmodernism Did Not Take Place: On Jordan Peterson’s 12 Rules for Life (Viewpoint Magazine)

Thus he can continue to misrepresent some shadowy “other” without naming names. This means no one individual can stand up and say, as Peterson so often does, that he’s “misrepresenting my ideas.” Instead, Peterson claims to be in opposition to a broad, undifferentiated “radical Left”–a shadowy group with no real face and ideas defined primarily by him. He can then beat the stuffing out of this straw man endlessly.

Is his characterization of his enemies’ ideas accurate? Well, to take just one example, I decided to listen to the BBC’s In Our Time episode on Feminism. I liked their episode on the Frankfurt School, and I thought it might give me some historical perspective on feminism. Instead, it was more of a dialogue/conversation between the host and two scholars of feminism and authors of several books. Here is how the host begins the program:

Melvin Bragg (host): Helena Cronin, you have written that men are by nature more ambitious, status-conscious, dedicated, single-minded, and perservering than women. You say that this a two-million year old fact, and we should accept it. Can you develop that, please?

Helena Cronin: Yes, of course they are. There’s quite a large psychological difference between men and women. Natural selection didn’t just shape our bodies differently but it shaped our minds differently as well. Think of it this way: give a man 50 wives and he can have children galore. Give a woman 50 husbands, no use whatsoever. Over evolutionary time, natural section has favored those men who have competed like mad to get mates. Over evolutionary time, natural selection has favored the women who have been judicious about which men they’ve taken. we are all descendants of the competitive men and of the judicious women.

MB: If you take those adjectives one by one, though, you could say that…take competitive. Well, Very few men have been as competitive as Margaret Thatcher; single minded, hundreds of women I could think of, tens of women I could think of even personally are very single minded; persevering, think of doctors and teachers and so on. Do these things apply now in the way that you think they have applied for two million years?

HC: They certainly apply now in exactly the way they did in that genes are still building our minds and bodies in the way they have for two million years. And the difference in psychology between men and women. Whats changed now, of course, is that women have fought and struggled for more opportunities. And those women who, on average, would have performed more like men are now able to. But that’s a statistical difference. One can say statistically that men are taller than women. And it’s certainly true that there are some tall women around, but all the tallest people are men.

Similarly, although women are now being given opportunities, and we can find the Margaret Thatchers and so on that couldn’t have existed years ago, statistically, nevertheless, women are on average far less competitive than men.

The other guest, feminist author Germaine Greer, responds:

I actually think I probably agree that masculinity is very different from femininity. I certainly believe that. But I also believe that men work very hard at creating masculinism and they put themselves through extraordinary disciplines. There’s a lot of aspects to the way they behave which are highly cultural and extremely protean: could change pretty quickly…the point is, culture does different things with biology…

In Our Time – Feminism (BBC)

Feminists and the “radical Left” refuse to acknowledge gender differences? Really? That’s not what it sounds like to me. They don’t really disagree on the basics, just on the emphasis. If you go on listening, you find that they do have their disagreements, but it’s much more complex than Peterosn’s cardboard caricatures of feminists. Later on, there is this exchange:

Helena Cronin: “Men and women are different. you’re assuming that this is in some way inimical to feminism.”

Melvin Bragg: “To a certain extent it is.”

Helena Cronin: “No, that’s where I strongly disagree with you…”

Of course, I can always find some fringe scholar who believes anything if I look hard enough. Ironically, Peterson’s own Reddit site recommends “steel manning,” or arguing against the strongest version of your opponents case. But I think the above proves that Peterson’ popularity (and Patreon donations) are predicated on him doing the exact opposite.

Alternatives to the 12 Rules

One of Peterson’s basic points I read as this: Any political system which goes against basic human nature is doomed to fail. On this point, we agree. We just have different views on what is compatible with human nature.

He also argues that when we see differential outcomes, such as more men graduating with engineering degrees, or more male CEO’s, we shouldn’t automatically assume some sort of bias or discrimination is present. This is an important point, and I agree with it. There are other factors we should consider.

He also argues that we shouldn’t subsume our individuality in the service of a group identity, and opposes notions of “collective guilt.” These are also well-founded. However, his dismissal of any and all forms of oppression throughout history strikes me as an extreme position.

This post makes a connection between Peterson’s philosophy and Christian existentialism: Jordan Peterson is a Garden Variety Christian Existentialist (Benjamin Studebaker)

If you like Peterson’s political philosophies, then you may be less an anti-Marxist than a Burkean Conservative. This column from John Michael Greer is still the best articulation of Edmund Burke’s philosophy that I’ve read anywhere:

The foundation of Burkean conservatism is the recognition that human beings aren’t half as smart as they like to think they are. One implication of this recognition is that when human beings insist that the tangled realities of politics and history can be reduced to some set of abstract principles simple enough for the human mind to understand, they’re wrong. Another is that when human beings try to set up a system of government based on abstract principles, rather than allowing it to take shape organically out of historical experience, the results will pretty reliably be disastrous.

What these imply, in turn, is that social change is not necessarily a good thing. It’s always possible that a given change, however well-intentioned, will result in consequences that are worse than the problems that the change is supposed to fix. In fact, if social change is pursued in a sufficiently clueless fashion, the consequences can cascade out of control, plunging a nation into failed-state conditions, handing it over to a tyrant, or having some other equally unwanted result. What’s more, the more firmly the eyes of would-be reformers are fixed on appealing abstractions, and the less attention they pay to the lessons of history, the more catastrophic the outcome will generally be.

That, in Burke’s view, was what went wrong in the French Revolution. His thinking differed sharply from continental European conservatives, in that he saw no reason to object to the right of the French people to change a system of government that was as incompetent as it was despotic. It was, the way they went about it — tearing down the existing system of government root and branch, and replacing it with a shiny new system based on fashionable abstractions — that was problematic. What made that problematic, in turn, was that it simply didn’t work. Instead of establishing an ideal republic of liberty, equality, and fraternity, the wholesale reforms pushed through by the National Assembly plunged France into chaos, handed the nation over to a pack of homicidal fanatics, and then dropped it into the waiting hands of an egomaniacal warlord named Napoleon Bonaparte.

Two specific bad ideas founded in abstractions helped feed the collapse of revolutionary France into chaos, massacre, tyranny, and pan-European war. The first was the conviction, all but universal among the philosophes whose ideas guided the revolution, that human nature is entirely a product of the social order. According to this belief, the only reason people don’t act like angels is that they live in an unjust society, and once that is replaced by a just society, why, everybody would behave the way the moral notions of the philosophes insisted they should. Because they held this belief, in turn, the National Assembly did nothing to protect their shiny up-to-date system against such old-fashioned vices as lust for power and partisan hatred, with results that made the streets of Paris run with blood.

The second bad idea had the same effect as the first. This was the conviction, also all but universal among the philosophes, that history moved inevitably in the direction they wanted: from superstition to reason, from tyranny to liberty, from privilege to equality, and so on. According to this belief, all the revolution had to do to bring liberty, equality, and fraternity was to get rid of the old order, and voila — liberty, equality, and fraternity would pop up on cue. Once again, things didn’t work that way. Where the philosophes insisted that history moves ever upward toward a golden age in the future, and the European conservatives who opposed them argued that history slides ever downward from a golden age in the past, Burke’s thesis — and the evidence of history — implies that history has no direction at all.

The existing laws and institutions of a society, Burke proposed, grow organically out of that society’s history and experience, and embody a great deal of practical wisdom. They also have one feature that the abstraction-laden fantasies of world-reformers don’t have, which is that they have been proven to work. Any proposed change in laws and institutions thus needs to start by showing, first, that there’s a need for change; second, that the proposed change will solve the problem it claims to solve; and third, that the benefits of the change will outweigh its costs. Far more often than not, when these questions are asked, the best way to redress any problem with the existing order of things turns out to be the option that causes as little disruption as possible, so that what works can keep on working.

That is to say, Burkean conservatism can be summed up simply as the application of the precautionary principle to the political sphere.

A Few Notes on Burkean Conservatism (World News Trust)

I would assume that Peterson would agree with the obvious falseness of this sentiment: “…the only reason people don’t act like angels is that they live in an unjust society, and once that is replaced by a just society, why, everybody would behave the way the moral notions of the philosophes insisted they should.” This is what he claims “social justice warriors” believe. And if that’s true, then I agree with Peterson. It’s true that certain Utopian factions of the Left have made this mistake and gone too far down this road. to that extent, those ideas deserve criticism.

For what it’s worth, Peterson doesn’t see himself as a conservative, so much as a “terrified traditionalist” who generally believes in exercising caution over endorsing sweeping or radical cultural changes.

Yes, Jordan Peterson Really Is That Smart (Daily Beast)

But it’s worth noting that Burke wasn’t criticizing Marxism, he was criticizing the French Revolution, a revolution which took place before Marx was even born! One wonders how exactly Marxism was responsible for this spasm of bloodshed over extreme inequality? Or perhaps it’s just that revolutions are inherently bloody business, regardless of what philosophy the revolutionaries ostensibly use to justify them. It just so happens most of the big ones in the twentieth century claimed to be channeling the spirit of Marx. In fact, Marx specifically warned against the tendency toward authoritarianism:

Neither of us cares a straw for popularity. A proof of this is for example, that, because of aversion to any personality cult, I have never permitted the numerous expressions of appreciation from various countries with which I was pestered during the existence of the International to reach the realm of publicity, and have never answered them, except occasionally by a rebuke. When Engels and I first joined the secret Communist Society we made it a condition that everything tending to encourage superstitious belief in authority was to be removed from the statutes.

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Karl_Marx

Indeed, the idea that an unjust social order is responsible for society’s ills is an Enlightenment one, and not one specific to Marxism per se, as Peterson insists. For example, it was the “classical liberal” the Marquis de Condorcet, not Karl Marx, who penned the following:

The real advantages that should result from this progress, of which we can entertain a hope that is almost a certainty, can have no other term than that of the absolute perfection of the human race; since, as the various kinds of equality come to work in its favor by producing ampler sources of supply, more extensive education, more complete liberty, so equality will be more real and will embrace everything which is really of importance for the happiness of human beings …

John Gray has also pointed this out:

The repression of liberty that took place in the countries in which Communist regimes were established cannot be adequately explained as a product of backwardness, or of errors in the application of Marxian theory. It was the result of a resolute attempt to realize an Enlightenment utopia – a condition of society in which no serious form of conflict any longer exists.

The idea of evil as it appears in modern secular thought is an inheritance from Christianity. To be sure, rationalists have repudiated the idea; but it is not long before they find they cannot do without it. What has been understood as evil in the past, they insist, is error – a product of ignorance that human beings can overcome. Here they are repeating a Zoroastrian theme, which was absorbed into later versions of monotheism: the belief that ‘as the “lord of creation” man is at the forefront of the contest between the powers of Truth and Untruth.’ But how to account for the fact that humankind is deaf to the voice of reason? At this point rationalists invoke sinister interests – wicked priests, profiteers from superstition, malignant enemies of enlightenment, secular incarnations of the forces of evil. As so often is the case, secular thinking follows a pattern dictated by religion while suppressing religion’s most valuable insights. Modern rationalists reject the idea of evil while being obsessed by it. Seeing themselves as embattled warriors in a struggle against darkness, it has not occurred to them to ask why humankind is so fond of the dark. They are left with the same problem of evil that faces religion. The difference is that religious believers know they face an insoluble difficulty, while secular believers do not. Aware of the evil in themselves, traditional believers know it cannot be expelled from the world by human action. Lacking this saving insight, secular believers dream of creating a higher species. They have not noticed the fatal flaw in their schemes: any such species will be created by actually existing human beings.

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/John_Gray_(philosopher)

Peterson’s views, by contrast, are more in line with Herbert Spencer’s Social Darwinsim as explained by Marx’s son in law Paul Lafarge:

“No political alchemy will get golden conduct out of leaden instincts; … no well-working institution will be framed by an ill-working humanity — hence mankind must abandon all hope of bettering our present system of society and of doing away with the wrongs and miseries of it.”

Another strain of thought similar to Peterson’s is Stoicism.

Like Peterson, Stoicism is interested in suffering and how to overcome it. It does not deny the harsh nature of existence. Like Peterson, stoicism differentiates between the things that are under our control and the things that aren’t. And it advocates mastering those aspects of your life you can control, while accepting those you cannot. Indeed, the very word stoic in English has come to mean “accepting one’s burdens without complaint.”

Stoicism has undergone something of a revival in these tumultuous times. There are many resources out there. I would recommend reading them.

As for the rest of Peterson’s rhetoric, you can get it from other wisdom sources who wrote long before Peterson without all the political baggage. For example, I ran across these quotes from the French writer Antoine de Saint Exupéry:

Each man must look to himself to teach him the meaning of life. It is not something discovered: it is something molded. These prison walls that this age of trade has built up round us, we can break down. We can still run free, call to our comrades, and marvel to hear once more, in response to our call, the impassioned chant of the human voice.

To be a man is, precisely, to be responsible. It is to feel shame at the sight of what seems to be unmerited misery. It is to take pride in a victory won by one’s comrades. It is to feel, when setting one’s stone, that one is contributing to the building of the world.

If it is true that wars are won by believers, it is also true that peace treaties are sometimes signed by businessmen.

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Antoine_de_Saint_Exup%C3%A9ry

Or Victor Frankl:

If there is a meaning in life at all, then there must be a meaning in suffering. Suffering is an ineradicable part of life, even as fate and death.

There is nothing in the world, I venture to say, that would so effectively help one to survive even the worst conditions, as the knowledge that there is a meaning in one’s life.

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Viktor_Frankl

Or Joseph Campbell:

If we could dredge up something forgotten not only by ourselves but by our whole generation or our entire civilization, we should become indeed the boonbringer, the culture hero of the day—a personage of not only local but world historical moment. In a word: the first work of the hero is to retreat from the world scene of secondary effects to those causal zones of the psyche where the difficulties really reside, and there to clarify the difficulties, eradicate them in his own case (i.e., give battle to the nursery demons of his local culture) and break through to the undistorted, direct experience and assimilation of what C. G. Jung called “the archetypal images.” This is the process known to Hindu and Buddhist philosophy as viveka, “discrimination.”

https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Joseph_Campbell

Or Marcus Aurelius:

Never esteem anything as of advantage to you that will make you break your word or lose your self-respect.

Remember this— that there is a proper dignity and proportion to be observed in the performance of every act of life.

Finally, I would agree with the sentiment expressed by one of the above articles, “This much should be obvious from even a cursory reading of him: If Jordan Peterson is the most influential intellectual in the Western world, the Western world has lost its damn mind.”

Deconstructing Jordan Peterson

While doing research for my last post, I ran across an interesting juxtaposition. I was looking at postmodern philosophers, and according to Wikipedia, one of the most prominent American postmodernists was a guy called Richard Rorty.

So I thought that I should take a look at this Rorty guy if he’s emblematic of American postmodernism, the same philosophy that Peterson claims is simply Marxism in disguise and has a “death grip” on North American universities.

Richard Rorty (1931–2007) developed a distinctive and controversial brand of pragmatism that expressed itself along two main axes. One is negative—a critical diagnosis of what Rorty takes to be defining projects of modern philosophy. The other is positive—an attempt to show what intellectual culture might look like, once we free ourselves from the governing metaphors of mind and knowledge in which the traditional problems of epistemology and metaphysics (and indeed, in Rorty’s view, the self-conception of modern philosophy) are rooted.

The centerpiece of Rorty’s critique is the provocative account offered in Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. In this book, and in the closely related essays collected in Consequences of Pragmatism, Rorty’s principal target is the philosophical idea of knowledge as representation, as a mental mirroring of a mind-external world.

Providing a contrasting image of philosophy, Rorty has sought to integrate and apply the milestone achievements of Dewey, Hegel and Darwin in a pragmatist synthesis of historicism and naturalism. Characterizations and illustrations of a post-epistemological intellectual culture, present in both PMN and CP, are more richly developed in later works, … In these writings, ranging over an unusually wide intellectual territory, Rorty offers a highly integrated, multifaceted view of thought, culture, and politics, a view that has made him one of the most widely discussed philosophers in our time.

Richard Rorty (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Okay, well that’s pretty complicated, and I’m not sure what to make of it. Is this the stuff that’s turning college students into Maoist Red Guards?

But the interesting thing is that I found that some of Rorty’s writings went viral in the aftermath of Trump’s election victory in 2016, particularly this passage:

Members of labor unions, and unorganized unskilled workers, will sooner or later realize that their government is not even trying to prevent wages from sinking or to prevent jobs from being exported. Around the same time, they will realize that suburban white-collar workers — themselves desperately afraid of being downsized — are not going to let themselves be taxed to provide social benefits for anyone else.

At that point, something will crack. The nonsuburban electorate will decide that the system has failed and start looking for a strongman to vote for — someone willing to assure them that, once he is elected, the smug bureaucrats, tricky lawyers, overpaid bond salesmen, and postmodernist professors will no longer be calling the shots.

Hmmm. Sounds pretty damn accurate, doesn’t it? It’s even more impressive that it was written back in 1998 during the Clinton administration, before even George W. Bush much less Donald Trump.

That quote is from this Vox article: Richard Rorty’s prescient warnings for the American left. I confess, I read this article when it first came out, but I had no idea who Richard Rorty–or Jordan Peterson–were at the time.

But the most salient part of the article is Rorty’s discussion of identity politics and change in emphasis on the Leftist tradition in America. Far from being a proponent of identity politics, this philosopher–who is considered to be one of the exemplars of postmodernist thought in America–issues a stark warning to the American Left about focusing on identity politics to the exclusion of all else. He also eerily predicts the politics of today, including the rise of Dr. Jordan Peterson and the alt-right more generally.

He begins be reviewing how the focus of the left in america changed due to the Vietnam war:

The focus of leftist politics changed in the 1960s. For Rorty, the left ceased to be political and instead became a cultural movement…The Vietnam War, more than anything else, set the left on its new trajectory. The war was seen as an indictment of the whole system, of America as such. Thus the broader anti-communist Cold War become a central fault line for left-wing activists. Led largely by students, the new left regarded anyone opposed to communism — including Democrats, union workers, and technocrats — as hostile…

From [Rorty’s] perspective, the problem was the total rejection of pragmatic reform. The belief that there was nothing in America that could be salvaged, no institutions that could be corrected, no laws worth passing, led to the complete abandonment of conventional politics. Persuasion was replaced by self-expression; policy reform by recrimination.

There was a shift away from economics towards a “politics of difference” or “identity” or “recognition.” If the intellectual locus of pre-’60s leftism was social science departments, it was now literature and philosophy departments. And the focus was no longer on advancing alternatives to a market economy or on the proper balance between political freedom and economic liberalism. Now the focus was on the cultural status of traditionally marginalized groups…

And it did this by “teaching Americans to recognize otherness,” as Rorty put it. Multiculturalism, as it’s now called, was about preserving otherness, preserving our differences; it doesn’t oblige us to cease to notice those differences. There’s nothing morally objectionable about that. As a political strategy, however, [multiculturalism is] problematic. It reinforces sectarian impulses and detracts from coalition-building.

The pivot away from politics toward culture spawned academic fields like women and gender studies, African-American studies, Hispanic-American studies, LGBTQ studies, and so on. These disciplines do serious academic work, but they don’t minister to concrete political ends. Their goal has been to make people aware of the humiliation and hate endured by these groups, and to alienate anyone invested in that hate.

Wow, that sounds pretty dead-on. Indeed, even Wikipedia notes of “Western Marxism

The phrase “Western Marxism” wasn’t coined until 1953, by Maurice Merleau-Ponty. While often contrasted with the Marxism of the Soviet Union, Western Marxists were often divided in their opinion of it and other Marxist-Leninist states…Since the 1960s, the concept has been closely associated with the New Left and the focus on identity politics and the cultural domain, rather than economics and class struggle (this became especially prominent in the United States and the Western world).

Rorty explains that this focus on marginalized groups will enable a populist right to emerge in response to Americans (especially white Americans) believing their culture is under attack. This will distract them from economic issues such as the consequences of globalism and financialization. The left’s focus on cultural issues thus created an opening for the populist right, for people like Pat Buchanan, and later Donald Trump, who galvanize support among the white working class by exploiting racial grievance, cultural differences and economic anxiety. As Rorty explains:

While the Left’s back was turned, the bourgeoisification of the white proletariat which began in WWII and continued up through the Vietnam War has been halted, and the process has gone into reverse. America is now proletarianizing its bourgeoisie, and this process is likely to culminate in bottom-up revolt, of the sort [Pat] Buchanan hopes to foment.

Buchanan, you might recall, was touting the “cultural Marxism” meme back in the Nineties, long before anyone had heard of an obscure Canadian psychology professor named Jordan Peterson. This article from a right-wing news site (back in 2010!) gives an overview of Mr. Buchanan’s worldview:

“The United States has undergone a cultural, moral and religious revolution. A militant secularism has arisen in this country. It has always had a hold on the intellectual and academic elites, but in the 1960s it captured the young in the universities and the colleges. “This is the basis of the great cultural war we’re undergoing….We are two countries now. We are two countries morally, culturally, socially, and theologically. Cultural wars do not lend themselves to peaceful co-existence. One side prevails, or the other prevails.

“The truth is that while conservatives won the Cold War with political and economic Communism, we’ve lost the cultural war with cultural Marxism, which I think has prevailed pretty much in the United States. It is now the dominant culture. Whereas those of us who are traditionalists, we are, if you will, the counterculture.”

So states Patrick J. Buchanan in the opening scenes of James Jaeger’s new film, Cultural Marxism: The Corruption of America. As always, Buchanan is outspoken and splendidly patriotic in his testimony on the present degeneration of our country. Many of us born before the 1960s and its shocking nihilism agree vehemently with him. We were raised in a land far removed philosophically from the America we are cursed with today, and this disturbing fact weighs heavily upon our hearts and minds.

Cultural Marxism and the Corruption of America (The Daily Bell)

I suggest reading the article in its entirety. These paragraphs, especially, sound eerily similar to the rhetoric of Dr. Peterson:

Critical Theory,” the brain-child of Max Horkeimer, was the first and most important of these strategies. Under its auspices, every tradition of Western life was to be redefined as “prejudice” and “perversion.” And these redefinitions were to be instilled into the social stream via devastating, scholarly criticisms of all values such as the family, marriage, property, individualism, faith in God, etc. These criticisms proved to be quite successful in the aftermath of the world’s collapse into the Great Depression, which brought about widespread disillusionment with the traditional capitalist society that had evolved in the West since the Renaissance and discovery of the New World.

The strategic criticisms were soon expanded by demarcating society’s members as either “victims” or “oppressors.” All who were economically successful were defined as oppressors, and all who were not successful were termed victims. Religious authorities became “witch-doctors.” Advocates of different social roles for men and women became “fascists.” Corporate heads became “exploiters.” Fathers became “patriarchal tyrants.” Families became “primitive clans.” The stream of criticism was relentless and extremely sophisticated in an intellectual sense. Thus it mesmerized the pundit class who then disseminated the criticisms’ fundamental content to the populace at large.

Compare to Peterson’s rhetoric cited in my previous post:

The postmodernists built on the Marxist ideology, Peterson said. “They started to play a sleight of hand, and instead of pitting the proletariat, the working class, against the bourgeois, they started to pit the oppressed against the oppressor. That opened up the avenue to identifying any number of groups as oppressed and oppressor and to continue the same narrative under a different name.”…“And so since the 1970s, under the guise of postmodernism, we’ve seen the rapid expansion of identity politics throughout the universities,” he said. “It’s come to dominate all of the humanities—which are dead as far as I can tell—and a huge proportion of the social sciences.”…“We’ve been publicly funding extremely radical, postmodern leftist thinkers who are hellbent on demolishing the fundamental substructure of Western civilization. And that’s no paranoid delusion. That’s their self-admitted goal,” …

https://www.theepochtimes.com/jordan-peterson-explains-how-communism-came-under-the-guise-of-identity-politics_2259668.html

Similar to Buchanan, Peterson believes that being responsible is the new counterculture: Jordan Peterson – Growing Up and Being Useful is The New Counterculture (YouTube).

All Peterson does is transfer the culpability for undermining Western civilization from the 1930’s Frankfurt School to the 1960’s French Postmodernists. Note that the idea that multiculturalism is an attack on “Western values” and that all of our major institutions have been taken over by socialist-minded elites imposing their views from above is a staple of alt-right thinking. It was an intrinsic part of Anders Breivik’s manifesto published right before his killing spree.

And Peterson wonders why they’re protesting.

Rorty’s prescient warning was that elites would emphasize identity politics on purpose in order to divide the working classes and keep them from coalescing around an economic agenda that would endanger elite power (unions, higher minimum wages, universal healthcare, higher taxes on unearned wealth, financial regulations, job creation, etc.):

By divorcing itself from class and labor issues, the left lost sight of its economic agenda and waged a culture war that empowers the right and has done little to improve the lives of the very people it seeks to defend. Rorty’s advice to the left was to pay attention to who benefits from such a strategy:

The super-rich will have to keep up the pretense that national politics might someday make a difference. Since economic decisions are their prerogative, they will encourage politicians of both the Left and the Right, to specialize in cultural issues. The aim will be to keep the minds of the proles elsewhere – to keep the bottom 75 percent of Americans and the bottom 95 percent of the world’s population busy with ethnic and religious hostilities, and with debates about sexual mores. If the proles can be distracted from their own despair by media-created pseudo-events…the super-rich will have little to fear.

Big business benefits most from the culture wars. If the left and the right are quarreling over religion or race or same-sex marriage, nothing much changes, or nothing that impacts wealth concentration changes. Rorty is particularly hard on Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton, both of whom he accuses of retreating “from any mention of redistribution” and of “moving into a sterile vacuum called the center.” The Democratic Party, under this model, has grown terrified of redistributionist economics, believing such talk would drive away the suburbanite vote. The result, he concludes, is that “the choice between the major parties has come down to a choice between cynical lies and terrified silence.”

Rorty’s concern was not that the left cared too much about race relations or discrimination (it should care about these things); rather, he warned that it stopped doing the hard work of liberal democratic politics. He worried that it’s retreat into academia, into theory and away from the concrete, would prove politically disastrous.

Immediately after the now-famous passage about a future “strongman,” Rorty offered yet another disturbing prophecy:

One thing that is very likely to happen is that the gains made in the past forty years by black and brown Americans, and by homosexuals, will be wiped out. Jocular contempt for women will come back into fashion. The words ‘nigger’ and ‘kike’ will once again be heard in the workplace. All the sadism which the academic Left has tried to make unacceptable to its students will come flooding back. All the resentment which badly educated Americans feel about having their manners dictated to them by college graduates will find an outlet.

If this were to happen, Rorty added, it would be a calamity for the country and the world. People would wonder how it happened, and why the left was unable to stop it. They wouldn’t understand why the left couldn’t “channel the mounting rage of the newly dispossessed” and speak more directly to the “consequences of globalization.” They would conclude that the left had died, or that it existed but was “no longer able to engage in national politics.”

“Jocular contempt for women will come back into fashion…All the resentment which badly educated Americans feel about having their manners dictated to them by college graduates will find an outlet…” Er, holy shit, this is exactly what has happened! I mean, does this not explain the rise of the alt-right movement in a nutshell? And he wrote this back in 1998, before anyone had heard of 4chan, Reddit, Facebook or YouTube!!!

Who benefits from such a strategy? Maybe the same people promoting Dr. Peterson as “the world’s most important public intellectual.”

So, not only does this prominent postmodern philosopher NOT endorse identity politics, but he explicitly warns against it! Of course, this is just one individual. But it certainly argues against the fact that some shadowy, united cabal of radical leftist postmodernists is enthusiastically pushing identity politics and multiculturalism to undermine the West and turn us all into communists. Or that this strategy is successful.

Instead of identity politics and media shaming, what would be successful?. Rorty suggests:

…Rorty’s vision of an “inspirational liberalism” is worth revisiting…The first of his three lectures is devoted to John Dewey and Walt Whitman, both of whom, on his view, personified American liberalism at its best. These were pragmatists who understood the role of national pride in motivating political change. They understood that politics is a game of competing stories “about a nation’s self-identity, and between differing symbols of its greatness.”

The strength of Dewey and Whitman was that they could look at America’s past with clear eyes…and go beyond the disgust it invoked, beyond the cultural pessimism. They articulated a civic religion that challenged the country to do better, to forge a future that lived up to the promise of America. In Rorty’s words, they recognized that “stories about what a nation has been and should try to be are not attempts at accurate representation, but rather attempts to forge a moral identity.”

Both the Right and the left have a story to tell, and the difference is enormous:

For the Right never thinks that anything much needs to be changed: it thinks the country is basically in good shape, and may well have been in better shape in the past. It sees the Left’s struggle for social justice as mere troublemaking, as utopian foolishness. The Left, by definition, is the party of hope. It insists that our nation remains unachieved.

“[The Right] sees the Left’s struggle for social justice as mere troublemaking, as utopian foolishness.” Well now, that’s a pretty accurate description of the heart of Jordan Peterson’s worldview as far as I can tell. To reinforce this point, Peterson deploys ideas from Darwinism, such as his now infamous discussion of lobster battles for hierarchical supremacy.

The Perplexing Mr. Nietzsche

Speaking of philosophers, is anyone more confused and misunderstood that Mr. Nietzsche?

In the right-wing article on multiculturalism cited above, Nietzsche is cited as an inspiration for the evil cultural Marxist conspiracy:

The cultural Marxists adopted Nietzsche’s “transvaluation of all values,” in which the Mad Hatter’s world is instituted. Everything that previously was an evil now becomes a virtue while all the old virtues become evils. Individualism, self-reliance, property, profit, family, traditional marriage, fidelity to spouse, strength of will, personal honor, rising through merit — all these integral pillars of our civilization become distinctive evils that oppress us as humans. They must be rooted out of our existence.

Yet, at the same time, Nietzsche is also a favorite philosopher of the alt-right:

In her recent book about the rise of the alt-right, Irish academic Angela Nagle discusses their obsession with civilizational decay. “They’re disgusted by what they consider a degenerate culture,” she told me in a recent interview.

Nietzsche made these same arguments more than 100 years ago. The story he tells in The Genealogy of Morality is that Christianity overturned classical Roman values like strength, will, and nobility of spirit. These were replaced with egalitarianism, community, humility, charity, and pity. Nietzsche saw this shift as the beginning of a grand democratic movement in Western civilization, one that championed the weak over the strong, the mass over the individual.

The alt-right — or at least parts of the alt-right — are enamored of this strain of Nietzsche’s thought. The influential alt-right blog Alternative Right refers to Nietzsche as a great “visionary” and published an essay affirming his warnings about cultural decay.

“Future historians will likely look back on the contemporary West as a madhouse,” the essay’s author writes, “where the classic virtues of heroism, high culture, nobility, self-respect, and reason had almost completely disappeared, along with the characteristics of adulthood generally.”

Nietzsche is also frequently cited by many white nationalists:

“You could say I was red-pilled by Nietzsche.”

That’s how white nationalist leader Richard Spencer described his intellectual awakening to the Atlantic’s Graeme Wood last June. “Red-pilled” is a common alt-right term for that “eureka moment” one experiences upon confrontation with some dark and previously buried truth.

For Spencer and other alt-right enthusiasts of the 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, that dark truth goes something like this: All the modern pieties about race, peace, equality, justice, civility, universal suffrage — that’s all bullshit. These are constructs cooked up by human beings and later enshrined as eternal truths.

Nietzsche says the world is in constant flux, that there is no capital-T truth. He hated moral and social conventions because he thought they stifled the individual. In one of his most famous essays, The Genealogy of Morality, which Spencer credits with inspiring his awakening, Nietzsche tears down the intellectual justifications for Christian morality. He calls it a “slave morality” developed by peasants to subdue the strong. The experience of reading this was “shattering,” Spencer told Wood. It upended his “moral universe.”

The alt-right is drunk on bad readings of Nietzsche. The Nazis were too (Vox)

“There is no capital-T truth? All modern pieties are bullshit? Stifling the individual? This seems like exactly the sort of stuff Peterson regularly rails against in his attacks on postmodernism.

Peterson’s embracing of Nietzsche is also troubling. Nietzsche was, of course, associated with the Nazis, mainly through his sister, who was a fan of the movement and intentionally distorted his posthumous writings to reflect that. But pinning Nazism on Nietzsche would be as disingenuous as pinning the crimes of Communism on Marx. Yet his promotion of order as being a “masculine” phenomenon, (Logos) and chaos being a “feminine” phenomenon strike me as vaguely authoritarian. Peterson claims he is actually anti-authoritarian, and an avowed enemy of “extremism” of both the Left AND the Right. But it’s hard to get that from his metaphysics. An obsession with “order” and “masculine virtues” are both staples of right-wing thought. So is an obsession with “civilizational decline.” According to the right, civilizational Decline comes about when feminine ‘chaos” triumphs over masculine “order.”–the same affliction the alt-right claims is weakening society.

Much of Peterson’s philosophy is responding to Nietzsche, and it does so in two ways: He agrees with Nietzsche that life is hard and will inevitably involve enduring misery. To survive, one must be prepared for this. But for Peterson, preparation does not involve defining one’s own truth and reality, as Nietzsche said. Instead of assuming the world will conform to one’s own will, Peterson advocates the importance of taking responsibility for oneself and living in accordance with the objective reality of the world around us.

For Peterson, there is objective truth and reality, and we cannot simply transcend all moral frameworks and create truth for ourselves…To deny these constraints leads to chaos—internally, interpersonally, societally. This is the main point of Peterson’s recently released Twelve Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos, wherein he lays out a moral framework that he believes will help people live life to the fullest—however unavoidably tragic life may be. Rule Eight: “Tell the Truth—or, at least, don’t lie,” addresses the Nietzschean, post-modern axiom of the subjectivity of truth head on. Peterson contends that we intuitively know what truth is, and that “lies make you weak and you can feel it . . . you cannot get away with warping the structure of being.” …Similarly, Rule Seven — Pursue what is meaningful, not what is expedient — also defies Nietzschean nihilism and corresponds with Peterson’s understanding of an objective reality. “Meaning is what we do to buttress our self against the tragedy of life … our pursuit of meaning is an instinct. Perhaps our deepest instinct… meaning is the antidote to the malevolence of life.” To deny meaning exists, to pursue happiness instead of meaning, or to seek meaning in the wrong things will lead to chaos.

But Peterson borrows from, in addition to criticizing, Nietzsche. Both men rail against the “last man,” the human type that seeks to shirk risk and responsibility in favor of comfort and safety. Like Nietzsche, Peterson’s view offers an “ideal human type” that lives by a superior code. For Nietzsche it was Übermensch that lived by a code of his own creation— a “master morality” of “might makes right,” also popularized by Thrasymachus in Book I of Plato’s Republic. For Peterson, the ideal is a mode of existence wherein one lives within the preordained structure of the universe and nobly grits the challenges that life throws their way.

Why Jordan Peterson Is the Last Gentleman (Law and Liberty)

Ignoring the real problem

Is the “radical Left” really the biggest problem in the world today? If Postmodernism is a philosophy that rejects all truth and universal values and defines reality as whatever one chooses it to be, isn’t that more compatible with right-wing politics in America today? Consider the quote of a Bush administration official:

The phrase [Reality-based community] was attributed by journalist Ron Suskind to an unnamed official in the George W. Bush Administration who used it to denigrate a critic of the administration’s policies as someone who based their judgements on facts. In a 2004 article appearing in the New York Times Magazine, Suskind wrote:

The aide said that guys like me were ‘in what we call the reality-based community,’ which he defined as people who ‘believe that solutions emerge from your judicious study of discernible reality.’ […] ‘That’s not the way the world really works anymore,’ he continued. ‘We’re an empire now, and when we act, we create our own reality. And while you’re studying that reality—judiciously, as you will—we’ll act again, creating other new realities, which you can study too, and that’s how things will sort out. We’re history’s actors…and you, all of you, will be left to just study what we do’.

The source of the quotation was later identified as Bush’s senior advisor Karl Rove, although Rove has denied saying it.

Reality-based Community (Wikipedia)

“Create your own reality?” Sounds pretty postmodern to me. And from the very next Republican administration:

“Alternative facts” is a phrase used by U.S. Counselor to the President Kellyanne Conway during a Meet the Press interview on January 22, 2017, in which she defended White House Press Secretary Sean Spicer’s false statement about the attendance numbers of Donald Trump’s inauguration as President of the United States. When pressed during the interview with Chuck Todd to explain why Spicer “utter[ed] a provable falsehood”, Conway stated that Spicer was giving “alternative facts”. Todd responded, “Look, alternative facts are not facts. They’re falsehoods.”
Conway’s use of the phrase “alternative facts” to describe demonstrable falsehoods was widely mocked on social media and sharply criticized by journalists and media organizations…The phrase was extensively described as Orwellian. Within four days of the interview, sales of the book 1984 had increased by 9,500%…

Alternative Facts (Wikipedia)

It doesn’t get more postmodern than that does it? Create your own reality? Alternative Facts? The world has no objective order or reality. It is up to us to define our own truth, purpose and reality for ourselves. Consider this quote from Peterson:

18:06: Among these post-modernist types, man, they don’t give a damn for facts. In fact, facts for them are currently whatever the current power hierarchy uses to justify their acquisition of power.

Sounds like the trump administration to me. And is it the Left who is really anti-science?

The Washington Post recently reported that officials at the Center for Disease Control were ordered not to use words like “science-based,” apparently now regarded as disablingly left-leaning. But further reporting in the New York Times appears to show that the order came not from White House flunkies but from officials worried that Congress would reject funding proposals marred by the offensive terms. One of our two national political parties — and its supporters — now regards “science” as a fighting word. Where is our Robert Musil, our pitiless satirist and moralist, when we need him (or her)?

The United States of America Is Decadent and Depraved

In fact, this article makes the case that Trump is our first postmodern president:

[Postmodern] writers describe a world where the visual has triumphed over the literary, where fragmented sound bites have replaced linear thinking, where nostalgia (“Make America Great Again”) has replaced historical consciousness or felt experiences of the past, where simulacra is indistinguishable from reality, where an aesthetic of pastiche and kitsch (Trump Tower) replaces modernism’s striving for purity and elitism, and where a shared plebeian culture of vulgarity papers over intensifying class disparities. In virtually every detail, Trump seems like the perfect manifestation of postmodernism.

For Baudrillard, “the perfect crime” was the murder of reality, which has been covered up with decoys (“virtual reality” and “reality shows”) that are mistaken for what has been destroyed. “Our culture of meaning is collapsing beneath our excess of meaning, the culture of reality collapsing beneath the excess of reality, the information culture collapsing beneath the excess of information—the sign and reality sharing a single shroud,” Baudrillard wrote in The Perfect Crime (1995). The Trump era is rich in such unreality. The president is not only a former reality-show star, but one whose fame is based more on performance than reality—on the idea that he’s a successful businessman. Although his real estate and gambling empire suffered massive losses in the early 1990s, and Trump’s “finances went into a tailspin,” he survived thanks to the superficial value of his brand, which he propped up though media manipulation.

In Baudrillard’s terms, Trump is a simulacra businessman, a copy of a reality that has no real existence. All sorts of simulacrum and decoy realities now flourish. Consider the popularity of conspiracy theories, evidence of a culture where it’s easy for fictional and semi-fictional narratives to spread like wildfire through social media. Trump loves spreading conspiracy theories about his enemies, and his enemies love spreading conspiracy theories about him.

America’s First Postmodern President (The New Republic)

To me, the most tragic thing about Jordan Peterson is that not only does he recite right-wing talking points to his audience of impressionable and hurting you men, he advises them to get with the program and grin and bear it. Do not challenge or question a social order that is crushing you, just master it. And that narrative certainly benefits a certain group of people.

And we’re living in a time eerily similar to that which saw the rise of right-wing regimes around the world in the 1930’s. And once again we see illiberal regimes rising around the world due to the economic circumstances. We see extremist parties rising because the mainstream parties have lost their ability to effect change.

Peterson never tires of telling us about the millions of people who died under Communist repression. His house is apparently decorated wall-to-wall with Soviet propaganda art. He even named his daughter after Mikhail Gorbachev. But consider what is happening in Russia right now:

Now a museum, Perm-36 is the only part of Joseph Stalin’s Gulag that still survives. The network of brutal labour camps was where Soviet Russia sent its political opponents, as well as many criminals and kulaks – wealthier peasants. During Stalin’s Great Terror in the 1930s, millions passed through the system. Hard physical work on meagre rations in extreme weather killed vast numbers…The museum at this site was founded by historian Viktor Shmyrov in the 1990s as post-Soviet Russia opened up to the world.

“The Gulag was a huge phenomenon but there are practically no traces of it left,” he says. “That’s why Perm-36 needed preserving.” The country opened many archives then too, revealing the scale and details of decades of political repression. But the desire to dig deep into that past has been fading.

In 2014, Perm-36 was taken over by the local authorities and the museum’s founder was removed. The new administration then tried to soften the museum’s focus, says Shmyrov. “The dominant idea now is that the Gulag was necessary, both economically and to bring discipline and order.” One member of the new team admits there were changes. “There was a lean towards justifying the repressions, maybe three years when the museum wavered,” historian Sergei Sheverin says, standing by rows of barbed wire. At one point, the Gulag museum’s own website defended Stalin’s imprisonment of scientists – to force them to work for the state.

Sheverin suggests the museum was a stain on the “Great Power” narrative of Russia that’s now led by Putin. That approach has seen Stalin rehabilitated because of his role in the Soviet defeat of Nazi Germany. “The policy from above is that we shouldn’t remember the bad things, only the good,” says Sheverin.

The museum’s founder Viktor Shmyrov suspects there was an additional reason for his removal. Perm-36 used to host an annual forum and music festival that attracted thousands. In a place where free-thinkers were once incarcerated, Shmyrov says the festival had developed into a “freedom space”. “Not one person there could say a good thing about Vladimir Putin of course,” he says. “We used to have a powerful civil society. Now they’re bringing order and control.” The attempts to dilute the historical message at Perm-36 sparked opposition from human rights activists and the independent press…

Does Putin’s Russia reject the West? (BBC)

But not, apparently, from Jordan Peterson who was busy fighting the real enemies of freedom: Candian politicians attempting to protect transgender people and the Ontario Education Association.

Meanwhile, in China, the president has removed limits to being president for life:

Last week China stepped from autonomy into dictatorship. That was when Xi Jinping … let it be known that he will change China’s constitution so that he can rule as president for as long as he chooses …. This is not just a big change for China but also strong evidence that the West’s 25 year long bet on China has failed.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the West welcomed [China] into the global economic order. Western leaders believed that by giving China a stake in institutions such as the World Trade Organization would bind it into the rules based system … They hoped that economic integration would encourage China to evolve into a market economy and that, as its people grew wealthier, its people would come to yearn for democratic reforms ….

Economists Shocked That China Invalidates Their Pet View That Economic Liberalization Producers Political Liberalization (Naked Capitalism)

As Rorty predicted, the elites are using cultural issues to keep us divided against one another as they consolidate power and engage in a new enclosure movement. Peterson is just the latest arrow in their quiver.

Without prompting, he raged, with operatic scattergun anger against postmodernism, Marxists and—his favourite bogeymen—“social justice warriors.” It was the day after the U.S. presidential election, and I was still reeling from Trump’s victory. Peterson was unperturbed. He said Trump was no worse than Reagan and that the Democrats got what they deserved for abandoning the working class and playing identity politics. I was initially surprised—someone who spent a lifetime studying tyranny wasn’t maybe a tad worried about a president with such undisguised autocratic ambitions? But then I remembered that Trump, too, has long blamed political correctness for America’s ills, and reflexively used the phrase to dismiss any criticism he faced—everything from his treatment of women to his proposed immigration ban on Muslims. And, among many Trump supporters, “social justice warrior” is a favourite epithet used to disqualify his critics.

The Pronoun Warrior

Jordan Peterson: Useful Idiot

I’ve spent a fair deal of time–way too much, actually–trying to get a handle on the Jordan Peterson phenomenon. And it is best to distinguish JP the phenomenon from JP the person, because from I can tell, they are indeed quite different and distinct.

I’m going to state at the outset what I had originally put in my conclusion. That:

1.) The Jordan Peterson phenomenon is mainly caused by our failure to take the pain of men, especially young men, seriously.

Men, especially white men, today are dealing with an impossible series of challenges. There are few satisfying roles for them in society anymore. They are ridiculed. They feel persecuted. They feel unloved. The rise of the Sheconomy has made the only jobs on offer for men ones that they don’t particularly enjoy doing or are not particularly suited for. Even in the few fields that are still (temporarily) male-dominated, such as computer programming, we are told that that this means we have a “diversity problem” that needs to be corrected, while no one frets about the paltry number of male home health care aides or registered nurses. Men are blamed for creating and sustaining a system that is shortening their own lifespans, and one that men feel is increasingly stacked against them (for example, child support and visitation rights).

Men quickly find that their natural interests do not overlap with what society wants or needs anymore, and their inclinations are seen as inherently boorish and cruel. They find that the traits that make them desirable as workers make them undesirable as romantic partners. They find video games and pot more satisfying than working in a dead-end job where you are treated like a virtual serf.

Peterson understands this phenomenon. He understands that men, in general, are less agreeable than women, and that they have different cognitive styles. He knows this from his psychological studies. He also knows that men, especially young men, have been abandoned by society that has no use for many of them and are feeling hopeless and adrift. This quote from James Howard Kunstler describes the situation pretty well:

“The general run of humanity really does need some sort of a coherent armature for daily life. And that incudes role models who offer examples of behavior that will allow them to thrive rather than to be defeated by life. They need a certain amount of discipline in order to fulfill the behavior that those role models show them, and they need some aspiration, some ability to aspire to the products or the results of leading what we might call a good life. And a lot of those things are missing, especially in these unfortunately sort-of disenfranchised, throw-away, forgotten, lower middle classes that we have in America. ”

“You can see it very clearly in my region, which was, as I said, a former thriving region of small manufacturing, small factories…around the confluence of the Hudson river and the Battenkill River where I am. Granted, a lot of these companies were paternalistic, but as part of that paternalism they sponsored a lot of institutional activities for people. You know, they had baseball teams, they had outings, [and] they paid these people enough to live decently, and these people produced children who aspired to do better. And they were able to do better. They got a better education by eighth grade in the 1920’s than people are getting now in grad schools. And all of this stuff has dissolved.”

“You actually need quite a bit of built-in structure in everyday life for a society to thrive and individuals to thrive within it. And that’s not there, and we don’t care about it. We just don’t care. We have eliminated most of the public gathering places in small town America. I live in a town that doesn’t have a coffee shop [or] a bar, anyplace that somebody might go outside their home. And there’s the expectation that all of the ‘community’ that you’re going to be a part of is found on your TV set. Well that’s just a lie. It’s based on a very basic and almost universal misunderstanding in America that the virtual is an adequate substitute for the authentic. That having relationships with made-up people on TV is the same as having relationships with people who are really in your life.”

“And so that structure for leading a good life is absent. We’re seeing the results of it in this ‘anything goes and nothing matters’ society that we’ve created for ourselves.”

James Howard Kunstler: Racketeering Is Ruining Us (Peak Prosperity interview, YouTube)

Into this vacuum steps Jordan Peterson with his theories about how “anything goes and nothing matters” is the postmodernist creed, with its ultimate roots in Marxism, and that the universities are spreading this pessimistic message of “cultural Marxism.” To counteract this, he turns to philosophers like Nietzsche and looks to archetypes and mythology to restore a lost order (logos) to life.

“I think at a deep level the West has lost faith in masculinity. That’s no different than the death of God. It’s the same thing. And Nietzsche knew what the consequences of that would be, that’s most of what he wrote about. So you’d say the divine symbol of masculinity has been obliterated. Well, so then what do you expect? What’s going to happen? That means masculinity is going to become weak. Especially if the symbol is also denigrated, which it definitly is.”

“So what that means is that the ideal that men could aspirte to is denigrated? Well, then with your ideal in tatters, you’re weak. That’s definitional. So I think the reason that men have been responding positively to my thinking is that I don’t buy any of that. I like the masculine spirit. It’s necessary. And its not fundamentally carnage and pillaging. Its not fundamentally rape culture. It’s not fundamentally world destroying And all of those aspersions have been cast upon it. That’s partly the guilt of Western society for technological progress…”

Jordan Peterson – The West Has Lost Faith In Masculinity (YouTube)

2.) To me, the most tragic thing about the JP phenomenon is the fact that, in my not-so-humble-opinion, the destruction of white males is caused primarily by our economic system of globalized financial casino capitalism which seeks no other goal than to maximize profit for a small international investors class, consequences to the health of society be damned. It leads to a “devil take the hindmost” attitude, where society is a zero-sum game divided into winners and losers.

But instead of taking a critical look at that system, Peterson places the blame, and the responsibility for solving it, squarely on the shoulders of the individual. I think this is not only self-defeating, but it is actually harmful. Numerous studies have shown that in countries where individuals blame wider economic forces for their unemployment, rather than their own personal fortitude, there is less self-hatred and self-harm.

When the job search becomes a blame game (MIT News)

American Dream breeds shame and blame for job seekers (BBC)

Peterson not only does not wish to look at these forces, but is a staunch defender of libertarian market values. Not only is there no class war, declares Peterson, but even thinking in class terms makes you a Marxist!

3.) One could hardly think of a better way to kneecap a genuine Leftist movement than unleashing the divisive identity politics seen on college campuses. But where are these ideas really coming from? Are they truly ‘Marxist’ as Peterson asserts?

We know that, by definition, the men suffering the most in America today are those without college degrees. This was the conclusion of the Case/Deaton study. Life spans are actually declining for men and women without degrees. This means that, by definition, the people suffering the most in our society have no idea what is really going on on college campuses! Yet they are continually warned of a “Red Peril” emanating from college campuses by the alt-right and vote accordingly. It’s the Red scare updated for the twenty-first century.

In my opinion, this is entirely a media-manufactured phenomenon. Why? As Adam Curtis opined, ‘Angry people click more.’ Keeping people angry and outraged seems to be the main purpose of media these days because it is profitable. Keeping people informed is less important than profits.

Are the semi-mythical “Social Justice Warriors” actually closet Maoists dedicated to spreading communism beyond the campus? Consider that it is at the core of the Marxist project for workers to set aside superficial differences such as race, gender and nationality, and recognize their class role as the main reason they are exploited. The social justice warriors clearly do not want that.

Liberals would be satisfied with a world in which exploitation and wealth were evenly distributed across demographic groups. The left doesn’t want that. We want no exploitation of anyone. That necessarily means that white men shouldn’t be exploited either…So, lonely and/or broke white men sometimes feel the left offers them no explanation for their suffering. You know who does? Jordan Peterson. He says to them, I know you feel bad, and let me tell you why. And then he feeds them a bunch of hateful bullshit. More and more people are going for it. He has the number one bestselling book on Amazon…

Slavoj Zizek makes this point as well:

If I were to engage in paranoiac speculations, I would be much more inclined to say that the Politically Correct obsessive regulations (like the obligatory naming of different sexual identities, with legal measures taken if one violates them) are rather a Left-liberal plot to destroy any actual radical Left movement. Suffice it to recall the animosity against Bernie Sanders among some LGBT+ and feminist circles, whose members have no problems with big corporate bosses supporting them. The “cultural” focus of PC and #MeToo is, to put it in a simplified way, a desperate attempt to avoid the confrontation with actual economic and political problems, i.e., to locate women’s oppression and racism in their socio-economic context…Liberals will have to take note that there is a growing radical Left critique of PC, identity politics and #MeToo…

A Reply To My Critics Concerning An Engagement With Jordan Peterson (Philosophical Salon)

This surprisingly intelligent YouTube comment makes a similar point:

For a long time it has been a tactic of US intelligence to support a moderate group, be it progressive or reactionary, as a way of blocking a more extremist group from gaining support. This happened domestically in the 60’s with progressive movements as well. Most famously Gloria Steinem was covertly supported by the CIA as a way of keeping attention away from more dangerous radicals. Culturally, things like universities in effect reproduce this dynamic. By having an Overton window big enough to include a lot of progressive politics, they can exclude actually dangerous stuff. This is the [role] political correctness basically plays. By maintaining vigorous debate within a specific window, and outrage for anything outside of that, it vanguards against real leftist politics of the sort actual Marxists argue for.

As this comment from an article in the Guardian about Peterson’s book states: “I thought Marxism was about “workers of the world unite” not ‘let’s fragment into a million separate indentities and fight each other.'”

So, who the hell is Jordan Peterson, anyway?

Jordan Peterson is a formerly obscure Canadian psychology professor who became an overnight sensation by posting a series of YouTube videos describing his opposition to Canadian Bill C-16. Opposition to this bill has become something of a a cause celebre among a certain group of self-described anti-Leftist activists who like to militate against against “identity politics.” He argued that the bill forced him to call people by their “preferred pronoun,” or else face sanction. He argued that this amounted to a form of “compelled speech,” and that language was a battleground that he would not cede to the “radical Left.”

In other words, if I were a transgender person and demanded Peterson call me, I don’t know, ‘apple,’ he would have to do so.

Now, I think we can all agree this is a little silly. But to Peterson, this was no less than a threat to freedom and very foundations of Western civlization.

On September 27, University of Toronto psychology professor Jordan Peterson posted a video titled Professor Against Political Correctness on his YouTube channel. The lecture, the first in a three-part series recorded in Peterson’s home office, was inspired by two recent events that he said made him nervous.

The first was the introduction of Bill C-16, a federal amendment to the Canadian Human Rights Act and Criminal Code that would add gender identity and gender expression to the list of prohibited grounds for discrimination. Peterson’s second concern was that U of T’s human resources department would soon make anti-bias and anti-discrimination training mandatory for its staff—training he believed to be ineffective, coercive and politically motivated. “I know something about the way that totalitarian, authoritarian political states develop,” Peterson said in the first video, “and I can’t help but think I’m seeing a fair bit of that right now.”

Other profs in his position might have written op-eds, circulated petitions or negotiated with university officials. But Peterson is a big believer in the power of YouTube—“a Gutenberg revolution for speech,” he calls it—and, as it turns out, he had a lot to get off his chest. He carpet-bombed Marxists (“no better than Nazis”), the Ontario Human Rights Commission (“perhaps the biggest enemy of freedom currently extant in Canada”), the Black Liberation Collective (“they have no legitimacy among the people they purport to represent”) and HR departments in general (“the most pathological elements in large organizations”).

Peterson also said he would absolutely not comply with the implied diktat of Bill C-16, which could make the refusal to refer to people by the pronouns of their choice an actionable form of harassment. He believes the idea of a non-binary gender spectrum is specious and he dismisses as nonsensical the raft of gender-neutral pronouns that transgender people have adopted—ze, vis, hir, and the singular use of they, them and their. “I don’t recognize another person’s right to determine what pronouns I use to address them,” he said grimly. “I think they’re connected to an underground apparatus of radical left political motivations. I think uttering those words makes me a tool of those motivations. And I’m going to try and be a tool of my own motivations as clearly as I can articulate them and not the mouthpiece of some murderous ideology.”...In his fervent opinion, the issue wasn’t pronouns, per se. It was much bigger than that. It was truth itself. Being told what to say—and by the government no less—was just one more step along the slippery slope to tyranny. The way Peterson tells it, the only thing standing between us and a full-blown fascist insurrection was him.

The Pronoun Warrior (Toronto Life)

Underground apparatus? Murderous Ideology? What the f*ck is he talking about???

According to Peterson, the mandated use of such pronouns is a “slippery slope” down the road to totalitarianism, re-education camps and gulags, and identity politics is the “camel’s nose” for FULL COMMUNISM.

Peterson contends that “political correctness” is actually a mutated form of Communist ideology, the same ideology, he claims, that directly led to the murder of millions of innocent individuals in the twentieth century. Furthermore, he claims that entire fields of academia have been corrupted by “radical postmodernism” including nearly all the humanities such as anthropology and literature. He further alleges that these “Neo-Marxists” have seized control of universities, government departments and corporate HR departments.

Despite his fear of leftist goon squads patrolling college campuses, no one, not one single person, has been arrested or jailed, or even fined over this law. It is a totally artificial crisis, manufactured in order to smear the radical left on college campuses and foment outrage. It’s pure grandstanding. Here is what legal scholars think in a letter from the Canadian Bar Association:

For human rights legislation, the CHRA prohibits denying or differentiating adversely in the provision of goods, services, facilities or accommodation customarily available to the general public, commercial or residential accommodation, or, employment on the basis of a prohibited ground of discrimination. The Act applies to federal and federally regulated entities.

The amendment to the CHRA will not compel the speech of private citizens. Nor will it hamper the evolution of academic debates about sex and gender, race and ethnicity, nature and culture, and other genuine and continuing inquiries that mark our common quest for understanding of the human condition.

RE: Bill C-16, An Act to amend the Canadian Human Rights Act and the Criminal Code (gender identity or expression) (Canadian Bar Association – PDF)

However, millions of people watched the videos and tens of thousands contributed to Peterson’s Patreon account, to the tune of over $50,000 a month. Being a martyr has its advantages. Chapo Trap House described him as “the Rosa Parks of Pronouns.”

If Peterson were really so concerned about the threats to free speech coming from employers such as his university, then why isn’t he arguing for more union representation, which has the added benefit if reducing inequality (which he claims to want to do):

I’m seeing a lot of comments from the political right and centre-right worrying about the possibility that workers may be fired for expressing conservative views…It strikes me that this would be a really good time for people…to campaign for an end to employment at will, and the introduction of the kind of unfair dismissal laws that protect workers in most democratic countries, but not, for the most part, in the US. Among other things, these laws prohibit firing employees on the basis of their political opinions. Better still, though, would be a resurgence of unionism. Union contracts generally require dismissal for cause, and unionised workers have some actual backup when it comes to a dispute with employers.

Free speech, unfair dismissal and unions (Crooked Timber)

So is Peterson’s far right?

Short answer: no. This video, Jordan Peterson: Am I Far Right?, gives a good simple description of what Peterson’s major influences are:

In an emailed rebuttal to a journalist who termed him a figure of the “far right”, he described his own politics as those of a “classic British liberal … temperamentally I am high on openness which tilts me to the left, although I am also conscientious which tilts me to the right. Philosophically I am an individualist, not a collectivist of the right or the left. Metaphysically I am an American pragmatist who has been strongly influenced by the psychoanalytic and clinical thinking of Freud and Jung.”

12 Rules for Life by Jordan B Peterson review – a self-help book from a culture warrior (Guardian)

There seem to be three, mutually interlocking Jordan Petersons:

A. The tenured psychology professor, who has written books and papers, and whose lectures have been described as ‘life changing’ by students who took his courses.

B. The self-help guru, who talks about things like metaphysical truth, Jungian archetypes and seeking meaning whose ideas resemble Joseph Campbell’s work in a lot of ways.

C. The rabid anti-Communist crusader who engages in conspiracy theories and red-baiting, who sees secret Communism behind every campus action he doesn’t like.

Peterson’s fans commonly depict him as “misunderstood.” This is because, for almost everything he has said, he has said the opposite at some point, or used weasel words to meliorate his stance. He’s also been accused of doing a Gish gallop through the topics he describes, making describing what he really believes like nailing jello to a tree.

Why, then, is he considered to be far right?

Well, one major reason is that Peterson’s primary fan base is the alt-right, whether he likes it or not. It was not Peterson on his A or B incarnations that made him famous and put money in his coffers; it was version C. And he knows it.

A large part of this is because Peterson’s preferred enemies list is exactly the same as that of the alt-right: Social Justice Warriors, feminists, political correctness, activists (such as black lives matter and LQBTQ), the undifferentiated “radical left,” HR departments, entire academic disciplines (such as anything with ‘studies’ in the title), postmodernism, but above all, Marxists and Neo-Marxists.

Peterson throws around the terms “Marxism” and “Neo-Marxism” sloppily and interchangeably, and without precise definitions. For a man whose cardinal rules include “Be precise in your speech,” he is extremely sloppy using these phrases, making it difficult to know exactly what he is talking about. This video from the Epoch Times is the most comprehensive statement of Peterson’s ideology:

The accompanying article in the Epoch Times, an anti-comummunist newspaper founded by dissidents from the Falun Gong movement, transcribes the main points of the interview:

Peterson said it’s not possible to understand our current society without considering the role postmodernism plays within it, “because postmodernism, in many ways—especially as it’s played out politically—is the new skin that the old Marxism now inhabits.”

[…]

By the end of the 1960s, he said, even French intellectuals like Jean-Paul Sartre had to admit that the communist experiment—whether under Marxism, Stalinism, Maoism, or any other variant—was “an absolute, catastrophic failure.”

Rather than do away with the ideology, however, they merely gave it a new face and a new name. “They were all Marxists. But they couldn’t be Marxists anymore, because you couldn’t be a Marxist and claim you were a human being by the end of the 1960s,” said Peterson.

The postmodernists built on the Marxist ideology, Peterson said. “They started to play a sleight of hand, and instead of pitting the proletariat, the working class, against the bourgeois, they started to pit the oppressed against the oppressor. That opened up the avenue to identifying any number of groups as oppressed and oppressor and to continue the same narrative under a different name. And so since the 1970s, under the guise of postmodernism, we’ve seen the rapid expansion of identity politics throughout the universities,” he said. “It’s come to dominate all of the humanities—which are dead as far as I can tell—and a huge proportion of the social sciences.”

“We’ve been publicly funding extremely radical, postmodern leftist thinkers who are hellbent on demolishing the fundamental substructure of Western civilization. And that’s no paranoid delusion. That’s their self-admitted goal,” he said, noting that their philosophy is heavily based in the ideas of French philosopher Jacques Derrida, “who, I think, most trenchantly formulated the anti-Western philosophy that is being pursued so assiduously by the radical left.”

“The people who hold this doctrine—this radical, postmodern, communitarian doctrine that makes racial identity or sexual identity or gender identity or some kind of group identity paramount—they’ve got control over most low-to-mid level bureaucratic structures, and many governments as well,” he said. “But even in the United States, where you know a lot of the governmental institutions have swung back to the Republican side, the postmodernist types have infiltrated bureaucratic organizations at the mid-to-upper level.”

“I don’t think its dangers can be overstated,” Peterson said. “And I also don’t think the degree to which it’s already infiltrated our culture can be overstated.”

Jordan Peterson Exposes the Postmodernist Agenda. Communist principles in postmodernism were spread under the guise of identity politics (Epoch Times)

Now, technically, Peterson doesn’t use the term “Cultural Marxism” directly in the video, preferring to use the term “Neo-Marxism.” As far as I can tell, however, the terms are interchangeable; I could not find any information distinguishing between the two, so I will consider them the same unless I find out some new information. He certainly describes them in the same terms.

Given that he took grave exception to the use of term “far right” in reference to him, to the point of demanding a retraction, one can only assume he is okay with the phrase “cultural Marxism” in reference to this video, otherwise he would have demanded that the term be removed and relaced with a more accurate one.

That Peterson is also vehemently anti-Marxist would be relatively unremarkable were it not for the fact that, in many of his online disquisitions about what he sees as a left-wing takeover of campus culture, he uses the terms “Marxism” and “postmodernism” almost interchangeably. Not only are these two schools of thought very different from one another, they are also in certain respects mutually antagonistic. You don’t need an MA in critical theory to figure it out: the travails of the Democratic Party during the primaries for 2016’s presidential election highlighted, in a very public and destructive way, the ideological fault lines in US progressive politics. The bitter schism between the Hillary Clinton camp — which mobilized aggressively around identity politics — and the old-school leftists who rallied around Bernie Sanders ultimately helped clear Donald Trump’s path to the presidency. (Historically, the burgeoning of identity politics in US campus culture in the 1980s and ’90s went hand in hand with the ascendancy of postmodernist ideas that explicitly repudiated Marxism.) It’s not just that this sloppy use of language exposes Peterson as an intellectual lightweight; the tendency to causally conflate various disparate phenomena that one happens not to like — in this instance, postmodernism, Marxism, and political correctness — is the calling card of the paranoiac.

A Messiah-cum-Surrogate-Dad for Gormless Dimwits: On Jordan B. Peterson’s “12 Rules for Life” (Los Angeles Review of Books)

What is “Cultural Marxism?”

Cultural Marxism is a ‘snarl word’ and dog-whistle phrase that refers to the Frankfurt School, a loosely organized group of academic and writers based in Germany during the Weimar Republic who were influneced by Marx. They were part of what we would today call a “private think tank” based in Frankfurt. For a good overview, I suggest listening to this slightly less baised overview from the BBC Radio four’s excellent In Our Time show: BBC Radio 4 – In Our Time, The Frankfurt School

Weimar Germany was a time much like our own: economic dislocation, rampant unemployment, declining faith in liberal democracy; communists, anti-communists, fascists and anti-fascists battling it out in the streets, marches and protests, etc. Despite all the chaos, there was a feeling of ‘hope and change;’ one scholar in the show compares it to an ‘Obama moment.’

Yet, instead of revolution, the nation turned to the right-wing Nazi Party.

Marx himself believed that successful revolution could only take place where the forces of capitalist production were sufficiently advanced. In such a scenario, the inherent contradictions of capitalism would cause it to falter, leading to socialist structures taking over in a more-or-less organic manner.

Instead, all the major communist revolutions were agrarian revolts by peasants against the aristocracy, rather than the proletariat rising up and seizing the means of production from capitalists in industrialized countries. Because the mass production of capitalism was not yet fully developed in these countries, Marx himself could have predicted their failure, and would not be surprised at the chaos under their implementation. Most Communists consider the Soviet Union as a form of state capitalism.

The Frankfurt School think tank pondered this question: Why didn’t the revolution occur in Germany after the War, where it “should” have occurred? Why didn’t the proletariat rise up and overthrow the capitalist class in the advanced capitalist countries of Western Europe, as many thought was inevitable? To answer this question, the Frankfurt School looked at more than just the economic structure, they decided to look at the culture itself. Capitalism wasn’t just an economic system, they argued. It colonized the minds of the individual people living under it, such that they could see no alternatives. It was embedded in the very DNA of society. To this end, they developed a  “critical theory,” which was, as you can imagine, critical of capitalist society, but addressed itself mainly to sociocultural issues rather than the economic workings of society as Marx had done.

They never called themselves “cultural Marxists,” however. Rather, that label first came from the National Socialist (Nazi) Party. The National Socialists didn’t use the phrase “cultural Marxism,” instead preferring the term “cultural Bolshevism.”

A History of Nazi Germany describes how the Weimar Republic brought about increased freedom of expression (modernism), then described by critics as decadent and irrational. Traditionalist Germans thought that this was causing German culture to decay and that society was heading towards a moral collapse.

The Nazis labelled this modernism as “Cultural Bolshevism” and, through “Jewish Bolshevism”, claimed that Jews were primarily behind Communism. In particular, they argued that Jews had orchestrated the Russian Revolution and were the main power behind Bolshevists.

This Jewish-led Bolshevist assault was described by Adolf Hitler as a disease that would weaken the Germans and leave them prey to the Jews, with Marxism being perceived as just another part of an “international Jewish conspiracy”. An ideological objective was thus the “purification” to eliminate alien influences and protect Germany’s culture.

Cultural Marxism (RationalWiki)

This concept of Marxists undermining Western civilization, and equating being “critical” and “pessimistic” with an attempt to subvert Western values is a staple of far right which began in Nazi Germany as a reaction to dislocation and rapid change. It’s a thread that runs through the alt-right today.

As this article points out:

[Peterson’s] obsessive anti-communism sits uncomfortably with [his] supposed anti-fascism. The main opposition to Adolf Hitler’s rise, after all, came, not from high-minded conservatives like Peterson, but from German socialist and communist worker’s parties. And Hitler secured support domestically and internationally in part by promising to crush that leftist opposition.

How anti-Leftism has made Jordan Peterson a mark for Fascist Propaganda (Pacific Standard)

In fact, a lot of “high minded conservatives” and prominent intellectuals threw their support behind Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. Many wealthy, conservative Americans did too, especially those strenuously opposed to the “socialist” policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt, policies that are quite similar to those advocated by, for example, Bernie Sanders today.

The “cultural Marxist” conspiracy theory didn’t die with the end of the Third Reich, however. Instead, it was revived and greatly expanded by the rising conservative movement of the 1990’s as the Republican Party merged with movement conservatism and the John Birch Society. They blamed everything they claimed was destroying American society on Marxists who were behind “politically correct” speech and quotas.

This post is a good explanation of why, ‘”[C]ultural Marxism” is a poorly framed interpretation of Marxist theory and is flawed in its conception”: Cultural Marxism, Cultural Conservatism and the Frankfurt School: Making Sense of Nonsense (How to Paint Your Panda). But then again, maybe it’s part of the conspiracy!

‘Cultural Marxism’ becomes a rallying cry for the modern-day alt-right

The conflagration of Marxism with political correctness and activism began long before anyone had ever heard of the good professor. It actually started in the Nineties, with roots going back to the Seventies.

This conspiracy theory hinges on the idea that the Frankfurt School wasn’t just an arcane strain of academic criticism. Instead, the Frankfurt School was behind an ongoing Marxist plot to destroy the capitalist West from within, spreading its tentacles throughout academia and indoctrinating students to hate patriotism & freedom. Thus, rock’n’roll, Sixties counterculture, the civil rights movement, the anti-war movement, homosexuality, modern feminism, and in general all the “decay” in the West since the 1950s are allegedly products of the Frankfurt school…[rationalWiki]

Its origins were surprisingly deliberate, emerging from a paleoconservative Washington think tank called the Free Congress Foundation. The FCF was founded by Paul Weyrich, a founder of the Heritage Foundation and namer of the so-called Moral Majority movement. Weyrich also created a TV network called National Empowerment Television, a short-lived predecessor to Fox News, which aired a documentary in 1999 called “Political Correctness: The Frankfurt School.” Hosted by…William Lind, it presents an account of the origin of what we now call “identity politics.”

Weyrich first presented his notion of Cultural Marxism in a 1998 speech to the Civitas Institute’s Conservative Leadership Conference, later repeating this usage in his widely syndicated “culture war letter”. At Weyrich’s request, William S. Lind wrote a short history of his conception of Cultural Marxism for the Free Congress Foundation; in it Lind identifies the presence of homosexuals on television as proof of Cultural Marxist control over the mass media and claims that Herbert Marcuse considered a coalition of “blacks, students, feminist women, and homosexuals” as a vanguard of cultural revolution…[wikipedia]

These came, Lind tells us, from the Institute for Social Research, or the Frankfurt School. There, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, and their cronies created a school of thought called “critical theory,” which the FCF gave the name “cultural Marxism.” This frightening idea fused the impertinence of Marx with the indecency of Freud, producing a new threat to Western values far beyond those posed by Copernicus or Darwin… [https://www.viewpointmag.com/2018/01/23/postmodernism-not-take-place-jordan-petersons-12-rules-life/]

Sounds an awful lot like Peterson’s rhetoric, doesn’t it? In his essay, Lind declared, in rhetoric virtually identical to that of the stump speeches of Jordan Peterson:

“Political Correctness is cultural Marxism. It is Marxism translated from economic into cultural terms. It is an effort that goes back not to the 1960s and the hippies and the peace movement, but back to World War I. If we compare the basic tenets of Political Correctness with classical Marxism the parallels are very obvious.”

Lind wasn’t satisfied with just an online essay. He also produced a series of videos which can easily be accessed on YouTube, whose ideas are virtually identical to the political views of Dr. Peterson:

In 1999, Lind led the creation of an hour-long program entitled “Political Correctness: The Frankfurt School”. Some of Lind’s content went on to be reproduced by James Jaeger in his YouTube film “CULTURAL MARXISM: The Corruption of America.” The historian Martin Jay commented on this phenomenon saying that Lind’s original documentary:

‘… spawned a number of condensed textual versions, which were reproduced on a number of radical right-wing sites. These in turn led to a welter of new videos now available on YouTube, which feature an odd cast of pseudo-experts regurgitating exactly the same line. The message is numbingly simplistic: all the ills of modern American culture, from feminism, affirmative action, sexual liberation and gay rights to the decay of traditional education and even environmentalism are ultimately attributable to the insidious influence of the members of the Institute for Social Research who came to America in the 1930’s.

Heidi Beirich likewise holds that the conspiracy theory is used to demonize various conservative “bêtes noires” including “feminists, homosexuals, secular humanists, multiculturalists, sex educators, environmentalists, immigrants, and black nationalists”.

Wait a minute, that’s the exact same enemies list as Jordan Peterson!

Indeed, I’ve spent some time watching these documentaries. Now, when I say the rhetoric is the same, you don’t have to take my word for it. Watch the Jordan Peterson video above. Watch the William Lind documentaries. Make up your own mind.

Although the theory became more widespread in the late 1990s and through the 2000s, the modern iteration of the theory originated in Michael Minnicino’s 1992 essay “New Dark Age: Frankfurt School and ‘Political Correctness'”, published in Fidelio Magazine by the Schiller Institute. The Schiller Institute, a branch of the LaRouche movement, further promoted the idea in 1994. The Minnicino article charges that the Frankfurt School promoted Modernism in the arts as a form of cultural pessimism and shaped the counterculture of the 1960s (such as the British pop band The Beatles) after the Wandervogel of the Ascona commune.

The idea that the counterculture was a fifth column for communism is an old chestnut  going back to the 1960’s, as is the idea that colleges were radicalizing middle American children. The Powell memorandum back in the 1970’s sounded a paranoid alarm about how students on college campuses were being indoctrinated by insidious left-wing professors to hate the “free enterprise” system.

According to Chip Berlet, who specializes in the study of far-right movements, the Cultural Marxism conspiracy theory found fertile ground within the Tea Party movement of 2009, with contributions published in the American Thinker and WorldNetDaily highlighted by some Tea Party websites.

More recently, the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik included the term in his document “2083: A European Declaration of Independence”, which—along with The Free Congress Foundation’s Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology—was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses approximately 90 minutes before the 2011 bomb blast in Oslo for which Breivik was responsible. Segments of William S. Lind’s writings on Cultural Marxism have been found within Breivik’s manifesto.

[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankfurt_School#Cultural_Marxism_conspiracy_theory]

Right-wing agitprop outlets such as Breitbart, whose head Steve Bannon served in the Trump administration, also commonly use cultural Marxism as a snarl word and all-purpose bogeyman for everything they believe is destroying America from within, in terms alarmingly similar to those of the Nazis:

Breitbart views so called ”Cultural Marxism”as the root of all evil. Cultural marxism destroys the language. Cultural Marxists wants to have equality between the sexes. they threaten the western civilization, and hate God and they love Muslims and Homosexuals too.

Yes, Cultural Marxists are behind Muslim” immigration to, they claim. It all started with talk about the rights of minorites in the 60s, as they write:

Under this “cultural Marxism,” progressives believed they would aid racial and sexual minorities — and now Islamic minorities — by transferring cultural power and status from ordinary Americans, especially from white working-class Americans and away from individualistic-minded Christian churches…

The present day cultural Marxists, including former President Obama

are also encouraging the migration of devout Muslims and their theocratic political leaders into the United States.

And that leads to terrorism.

The resulting spike in jihad attacks…”

The Nazi Roots of the Word ”Cultural Marxism” (Breitbart Watch)

And this idea has even infiltrated the highest levels of the U.S. military:

In July 2017, Rich Higgins was removed by US National Security Advisor H. R. McMaster from the United States National Security Council following the discovery of a seven-page memorandum he had authored, describing a conspiracy theory concerning a plot to destroy the presidency of Donald Trump by Cultural Marxists, as well as Islamists, globalists, bankers, the media, and members of the Republican and Democratic parties.

As RationalWiki states, “Nobody denies that the Frankfurt School existed (and championed its fair share of nutty ideas). Critics of the pseudohistorical ‘Cultural Marxism’ conspiracy theory merely argue that the school was tediously unsuccessful (and, as such, somewhat unimportant) in the broad scheme of Western progressivism — and, more obvious still, that all liberals aren’t commies as well.”

Now, it’s obviously clear that Peterson’s understanding of “Cultural Marxism” is very different than Anders Breivik, the Norwegian mass murderer. But Peterson’s constant use of this term is worrying. After all, this is what our young men are listening to! Peterson’s claims are that things like bill C-16 lead to the gulag and reeducation camps. Yet ideas virtually identical to the ones he is peddling have already directly led to the deaths of 77 people in Norway. It’s even gained cachet among people with their fingers on the nuclear button. What’s the real threat here???

According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, the right-wing theory of cultural Marxism holds that the Jewish, Marxist philosophers of the 1930s Frankfurt School hatched a conspiracy to corrupt American values by promoting sexual liberation and anti-racism…Peterson has tweaked this argument a bit. In his lectures, he mostly traces cultural rot to postmodernists like Derrida (whose work Peterson comically garbles) rather than to the Frankfurt School.

In Peterson’s new book, though, he does explicitly link postmodernism to the Frankfurt school, and in other venues he regularly uses and approves the term “cultural Marxism.” One of his videos is titled “Postmodernism and Cultural Marxism.” On Facebook, he shared a Daily Caller article titled “Cultural Marxism Is Destroying America” that begins, with outright racism, “Yet again an American city is being torn apart by black rioters.” The article goes on to blame racial tension in the U.S. on … you guessed it: the Frankfurt School.

Of course, it is possible to criticize the left without falling into fascism. Joseph Stalin was a murderous monster; Communist regimes have done horrible things that led to the deaths of millions of people. But the left in the U.S. and Canada is not promoting armed revolution or mass murder. In his cultural Marxism video, Peterson argues that, whether you’re talking about Leninist insurrection or folks criticizing sexism or racism in cultural products, “the end result is much the same.” That’s dangerous nonsense, which can easily be used to justify any extreme of violence. If your gender studies professor is the equivalent of Lenin … well, we’d better destroy her, right?

How anti-Leftism has made Jordan Peterson a mark for Fascist Propaganda (Pacific Standard)

His constant promotion of these paranoid conspiracy theories to his audience of impressionable, frustrated, and economically precarious young men makes him what I would characterize, somewhat ironically, a “useful idiot” for the far-right. This is why Peterson’s “I’m so misunderstood” schtick is disingenuous, as are the claims that he is “misinterpreted.” I think it’s pretty clear from the evidence above, in his own words, what he believes.

The tragic thing is, there was a guy who wrote in very similar terms about the rootlessness, despair and alienation that young men would inevitably experience under capitalism. He also gained a following as well. His name? Karl Marx:

Matthew Syed in the Times gives us a wonderful example of Marxist thinking. He asks why marathon running is so popular, and says it’s because it satisfies a desire for self-improvement which we cannot get from paid labour:

We live in a world where the connection between effort and reward is fragmenting. In our past, we hunted, gathered and built…We could observe, track and consume the fruits of our labour. We could see the connection between our sweat and toil, and the value we derived from them. In today’s globally dispersed capitalist machine, this sense is disappearing.

This is pure Marxism. Marx thought that people had a desire for self-actualization through work, but that capitalism thwarted this urge. In capitalism, he wrote:

Labor is external to the worker, i.e., it does not belong to his intrinsic nature; that in his work, therefore, he does not affirm himself but denies himself, does not feel content but unhappy, does not develop freely his physical and mental energy but mortifies his body and ruins his mind. The worker therefore only feels himself outside his work, and in his work feels outside himself.

Jon Elster claims that Marx “condemned capitalism mainly because it frustrated human development and self-actualization.”

Marx was right. The fact that we spend our leisure time doing things that others might call work – gardening, DIY, baking, blogging, playing musical instruments – demonstrates our urge for self-actualization. And yet capitalist work doesn’t fulfill this need. As the Smith Institute said (pdf):

Not only do we have widespread problems with productivity and pay, as well as growing insecurity at work, but also a significant minority of employees suffer from poor management, lack of meaningful voice and injustice at work. For too many workers, their talent, skills and potential go unrealised, leaving them less fulfilled and the economy failing to fire on all cylinders.

This poses the question: why isn’t there more demand at the political level for fulfilling work?

Alienation: The Non-Issue (Stumbling and Mumbling)

Perhaps because people like Jordan Peterson and his ilk would rather we focus on the threat from radical postmodernist feminist college professors, and the identitarian Neoliberals just want to make sure that there are enough minorities represented among the exploiters. Divide and rule has been a standard tactic to maintain power in America since Bacon’s Rebellion invented the very concept of “race” to keep working classes from teaming up against the aristocracy who were–dare we say it–oppressing them. It was only when Martin Luther King attempted to bring poor whites into his movement that he was assassinated.

The meaning and self-actualization Peterson is peddling in his book simply isn’t possible under the capitalist system. And that’s the problem. No amount of self-help or story-building is going to change that fact.

Combining white paranoia about being a minority with a deteriorating economy and constant fears of cultural Marxism, and peddling those ideas to angry young men has not shown itself to lead to a good result, historically. Is Peterson too ignorant of history to see this?

Admittedly it’s not always easy to distinguish between a harmless retro eccentric and a peddler of poisonous and potentially murderous ideas. So let’s take stock: Masculinist persecution myth? Check. Repeated appeals to Darwinism to justify social hierarchies? Check. A left-wing conspiracy to take over the culture? Check. Romanticization of suffering? Check. Neurotic angst about “chaos”? Check. Like many of his sort, Peterson sees himself as a defender of the best traditions of Western civilization and the Enlightenment. But there is an old adage: if it looks like a duck and quacks like a duck, chances are it’s a duck.

A Messiah-cum-Surrogate-Dad for Gormless Dimwits: On Jordan B. Peterson’s “12 Rules for Life” (Los Angeles Review of Books)

Finally, here are some more good comments from that YouTube video. I’ve combined several of them together which make the point that Marxism and Postmodernism have nothing to do with the identitarian politics on college campuses.

I’m so fucking tired of people using the term postmodernist as a catchall for leftists – postmodernism has literally nothing to do with Marxism, in fact by its very nature is at odds with the material nature of Marxism… Derrida wasn’t a Marxist, he wasn’t even a political radical unlike many of his colleges. Derrida didn’t even write about Marx at all until the 90s, after the time in which all of his intellectual cohort had given up on Marx. Derrida’s philosophical heritage is by way of the structuralism of Saussure and Levi-Strauss, and hermeneutic philosophy of Heidegger and Gadamer…

Something that most people who aren’t in the academic left don’t realize is that Foucault is seen as a clear break with Marxism, and distinctly not as an extension of it. Foucault was the first one to pose a distinctly different understanding of oppression, a sort of anarchist flavoured one, against the Marxists. There have been attempts at reconciliation, the most significant of which is Empire by Negri and Hardt, where they incorporated Foucault’s biopolitical framework to create framework for analyzing the world after the cold war. Postmodernism, insofar as that term refers to anything at all, is the wave of thinkers who broke with Marx after reading Nietzsche, which is both the case for Foucault and Deleuze. Lyotard and Baurillard also broke with Marx altogether, though for different reasons. Negri, Deleuze, and Althusser all also became anti-Hegelian, all adopting Spinoza as a model for bizarre anti-dialectical forms of “Marxism”.

Basically, this is a lot more complicated than Peterson, or you, understand. The people who are collected up into ‘postmodernism’ were serious intellectual with real insight, and while most of it I don’t think is correct, it’s important and interesting stuff.

Because Postmodernism doesn’t actually refer to anything, it is an empty label and basically exists only as a term of abuse by people who don’t want to actually engage with various philosophers and social thinkers. The really is no common factor philosophically that link Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze, Rorty, etc etc… What connects all these people is really just their attempt to explain society in the era they lived in. …Peterson just straight up doesn’t understand the topology of the left. Peterson has never lived in a place where ‘the left’ and ‘liberals’ where universally understood to be categorically different orientations in politics. For Peterson communists are just ‘very liberal’ people, while in European politics, for most of the most of the postwar period being ‘very liberal’ was the same as saying ‘very anti-communist’. In places like France and Italy the Communist party was often the second or third biggest party, and was distinctly separate from anything called a ‘liberal’ party. This fact means that Peterson totally conflates the Marxist left with the ‘left-liberalism’ or progressive liberalism…

Next time we’ll take a look at how Peterson defends and shores up those systems.